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Johann Crüger

1598 - 1662 Person Name: J. Crüger Hymnal Number: 490 Composer of "[Gud skal al Ting mage]" in Kirkesalmebog Johann Crüger (b. Grossbriesen, near Guben, Prussia, Germany, 1598; d. Berlin, Germany, 1662) Crüger attended the Jesuit College at Olmutz and the Poets' School in Regensburg, and later studied theology at the University of Wittenberg. He moved to Berlin in 1615, where he published music for the rest of his life. In 1622 he became the Lutheran cantor at the St. Nicholas Church and a teacher for the Gray Cloister. He wrote music instruction manuals, the best known of which is Synopsis musica (1630), and tirelessly promoted congregational singing. With his tunes he often included elaborate accom­paniment for various instruments. Crüger's hymn collection, Neues vollkomliches Gesangbuch (1640), was one of the first hymnals to include figured bass accompaniment (musical shorthand) with the chorale melody rather than full harmonization written out. It included eighteen of Crüger's tunes. His next publication, Praxis Pietatis Melica (1644), is considered one of the most important collections of German hymnody in the seventeenth century. It was reprinted forty-four times in the following hundred years. Another of his publications, Geistliche Kirchen Melodien (1649), is a collection arranged for four voices, two descanting instruments, and keyboard and bass accompaniment. Crüger also published a complete psalter, Psalmodia sacra (1657), which included the Lobwasser translation set to all the Genevan tunes. Bert Polman =============================== Crüger, Johann, was born April 9, 1598, at Gross-Breese, near Guben, Brandenburg. After passing through the schools at Guben, Sorau and Breslau, the Jesuit College at Olmütz, and the Poets' school at Regensburg, he made a tour in Austria, and, in 1615, settled at Berlin. There, save for a short residence at the University of Wittenberg, in 1620, he employed himself as a private tutor till 1622. In 1622 he was appointed Cantor of St. Nicholas's Church at Berlin, and also one of the masters of the Greyfriars Gymnasium. He died at Berlin Feb. 23, 1662. Crüger wrote no hymns, although in some American hymnals he appears as "Johann Krüger, 1610,” as the author of the supposed original of C. Wesley's "Hearts of stone relent, relent" (q.v.). He was one of the most distinguished musicians of his time. Of his hymn tunes, which are generally noble and simple in style, some 20 are still in use, the best known probably being that to "Nun danket alle Gott" (q.v.), which is set to No. 379 in Hymns Ancient & Modern, ed. 1875. His claim to notice in this work is as editor and contributor to several of the most important German hymnological works of the 16th century, and these are most conveniently treated of under his name. (The principal authorities on his works are Dr. J. F. Bachmann's Zur Geschichte der Berliner Gesangbücher 1857; his Vortrag on P. Gerhard, 1863; and his edition of Gerhardt's Geistliche Lieder, 1866. Besides these there are the notices in Bode, and in R. Eitner's Monatshefte für Musik-Geschichte, 1873 and 1880). These works are:— 1. Newes vollkömmliches Gesangbuch, Augspur-gischer Confession, &c, Berlin, 1640 [Library of St. Nicholas's Church, Berlin], with 248 hymns, very few being published for the first time. 2. Praxis pietatis melica. Das ist: Ubung der Gottseligkeit in Christlichen und trostreichen Gesängen. The history of this, the most important work of the century, is still obscure. The 1st edition has been variously dated 1640 and 1644, while Crüger, in the preface to No. 3, says that the 3rd edition appeared in 1648. A considerable correspondence with German collectors and librarians has failed to bring to light any of the editions which Koch, iv. 102, 103, quotes as 1644, 1647, 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652, 1653. The imperfect edition noted below as probably that of 1648 is the earliest Berlin edition we have been able to find. The imperfect edition, probably ix. of 1659, formerly in the hands of Dr. Schneider of Schleswig [see Mützell, 1858, No. 264] was inaccessible. The earliest perfect Berlin edition we have found is 1653. The edition printed at Frankfurt in 1656 by Caspar Röteln was probably a reprint of a Berlin edition, c. 1656. The editions printed at Frankfurt-am-Main by B. C. Wust (of which the 1666 is in the preface described as the 3rd) are in considerable measure independent works. In the forty-five Berlin and over a dozen Frankfurt editions of this work many of the hymns of P. Gerhardt, J. Franck, P. J. Spener, and others, appear for the first time, and therein also appear many of the best melodies of the period. 3. Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien, &c, Leipzig, 1649 [Library of St. Katherine's Church, Brandenburg]. This contains the first stanzas only of 161 hymns, with music in four vocal and two instrumental parts. It is the earliest source of the first stanzas of various hymns by Gerhardt, Franck, &c. 4. D. M. Luther's und anderer vornehmen geisU reichen und gelehrten Manner Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen, &c, Berlin, 1653 [Hamburg Town Library], with 375 hymns. This was edited by C. Runge, the publisher, and to it Crüger contributed some 37 melodies. It was prepared at the request of Luise Henriette (q.v.), as a book for the joint use of the Lutherans and the Re¬formed, and is the earliest source of the hymns ascribed to her, and of the complete versions of many hymns by Gerhardt and Franck. 5. Psalmodia Sacra, &c, Berlin, 1658 [Royal Library, Berlin]. The first section of this work is in an ed. of A. Lobwasser's German Psalter; the second, with a similar title to No. 4, and the date 1657, is practically a recast of No. 4,146 of those in 1653 being omitted, and the rest of the 319 hymns principally taken from the Praxis of 1656 and the hymn-books of the Bohemian Brethren. New eds. appeared in 1676, 1700, 1704, 1711, and 1736. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- Excerpt from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================= Crüger, Johann, p. 271, ii. Dr. J. Zahn, now of Neuendettelsau, in Bavaria, has recently acquired a copy of the 5th ed., Berlin, 1653, of the Praxis. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Nikolaus Herman

1500 - 1561 Person Name: Nicolaus Hermann Hymnal Number: 493 Author of "O Herre Gud! din Sol saa skjøn" in Kirkesalmebog Herman, Nicolaus, is always associated with Joachimsthal in Bohemia, just over the mountains from Saxony. The town was not of importance till the mines began to be extensively worked about 1516. Whether Herman was a native of this place is not known, but he was apparently there in 1518, and was certainly in office there in 1524. For many years he held the post of Master in the Latin School, and Cantor or Organist and Choirmaster in the church. Towards the end of his life he suffered greatly from gout, and had to resign even his post as Cantor a number of years before his death. He died at Joachimsthal, May 3, 1561. (Koch, i. 390-398; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, xii. 186-188, &c.) He was a great friend and helper of J. Mathesius (q.v.) (who in 1532 became rector of the school, but in 1541 diaconus and in 1545 pastor of the church), and it was said that whenever Mathesius preached a specially good sermon Herman straightway embodied its leading ideas in a hymn. His hymns, however, were not primarily written for use in church, but were intended for the boys and girls in the schools, to supplant profane songs in the mouths of the young men and women, or for the daily life of the “housefathers and housemothers" in Joachimsthal, at home, and in their work in the mines. He is a poet of the people, homely, earnest, and picturesque in style; by his naiveté reminding us of Hans Sachs. He was an ardent lover of music and a very good organist. The chorales which he published with his hymns are apparently all of his own composition, and are among the best of the Reformation period. Many of Herman's hymns soon passed into Church use in Germany, and a number are found in almost all books in present use. About 190 in all, they appeared principally in:— (1) Die Sontags Evangelia uber des gantze Jar, in Gesenge verfasset, für die Kinder und christlichen Haussvetter, &c, Wittenberg, 1560 (dedication by Herman dated Trinity Sunday, 1559), with 101 hymns and 17 melodies. The best are those interspersed specially meant for children and not directly founded on the Gospel for the day. (2) Die Historien von der Sindfludt, Joseph, Mose, Helia, Elisa und der Susanna, sampt etlichen Historien aus den Evangelisten, &c., Wittenberg, 1562 (preface by Herman dated St. Bartholomew's Day, 1560), with 73 hymns and 20 melodies. In this case also the general hymns are the best. A selection of 60 (really 61) of his hymns, with a memoir by K. F. Ledderhose, was published at Halle, 1855. One of Herman's hymns is noted under “Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist." The others which have passed into English are:— i. Bescher uns, Herr, das täglioh Brod. Grace before Meat. 1562, as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 1228, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines; in Ledderhose, p. 70; and in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1133. Translated as:— 1. Thou art our Father and our God. This, by P. H. Molther, a translation of stanza vi., as No. 180 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 220, st. v.). 2. As children we are owned by Thee, a translation of stanza vi., as st. iii. of No. 191 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 220, stanza iii.). ii. Die helle Sonn leucht jetzt herfür. Morning. 1560, as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 1184, in 4 stanzas of 4 lines, in Ledderhose, p. 87; and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 450. Translated as:— The morning beam revives our eyes, a good and full translation by. A. T. Russell, as No. 71 in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book 1848. iii. Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag. Easter. 1560, as above, in 14 stanzas of 4 lines, entitled, "A new Spiritual Song of the Joyful Resurrection of our Saviour Jesus Christ; for the maidens of the girls' school in Joachimsthal”; and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 1175; in Ledderhose p. 23, and Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 134. It has reminiscences of the "Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ". Translated as:— The day hath dawn'd—-the day of days, a good translation by A. T. Russell of stanzas i., ii., xiii., xiv., as No. 113 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Another tr. is, "At length appears the glorious day," by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 28. iv. Hinunter ist der Sonnen Schein. Evening. 1560, as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 1184, in 4 stanzas of 4 lines; in Ledderhose, p. 88; and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen1851, No. 523. Some of the phrases may have been suggested by the "Christe qui lux es et dies" (q. v.). Translated as:— 1. Sunk is the sun's last beam of light, a full and good translation by Miss Cox in her Sacred Hymns from the German, 1841, p. 57. Included in Alford's Psalms & Hymns, 1844, and Tear of Praise, 1867; in Dale's English Hymn Book, 1875; in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book, 1868, and others. It is also given considerably altered and beginning, "Sunk is the Sun! the daylight gone," in W. J. Blew's Church Hymn and Tune Book, 1851-55. 2. The happy sunshine all is gone, in full, by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 225; repeated in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, and the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Other translations are: (1) "Did I perhaps Thee somewhat grieve," a translation of stanza iii. in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789, No. 756. In the 1801 and later eds. (1886, No. 1181, st. iii.), it begins, "Where'er I Thee this day did grieve." (2) "The sun’s fair sheen is past and gone," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 68. (3) "The sun hath run his daily race," by Lady E. Fortescue, 1843, p. 14. v. Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich. Christmas. Written c. 1554, but first published 1560 as above, as the first of "Three Spiritual Christmas Songs of the new-born child Jesus, for the children in Joachimsthal." Thence in Wackernagel iii. p. 1169, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines; in Ledderhose, p. 1; and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 47. It is one of the most popular German Christmas hymns. The melody set to it in 1560 is also by Herman; in 1554 to his "Kommt her ihr liebsten Schwesterlein" [in the Hymnal Companioncalled "St. George's (old)"]. Translated as :— 1. Let all together praise our God, a good translation of stanzas i., iii., vi., viii., by A. T. Russell, as No. 52 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Repeated in Kennedy, 1863, adding a translation of st. ii., and beginning, "Let all creation praise our God." 2. Praise ye the Lord, ye Christians I yea, in full, by E. Cronenwett, as No. 31 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal 1880. Other translations are: (1) "A wondrous change He with us makes," a tr. of stanza viii., ix. as No. 438 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, repeated 1789-1826. (2) "Come, brethren, lets the song arise," by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 26. (3) "Praise God, now Christians, all alike," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 9. (4) "Praise God, upon His throne on high," in the Sunday Magazine, 1874, p. 384, signed "P. J." The hymn “Shepherds rejoice, lift up your eyes," given by J. C. Jacobi in his Psalmodia Germanica, 1722, p. 8, to Herman's melody (which was first published 1554) is, as stated in his Preface, taken from Bk. i. of Isaac Watts's Horse Lyricae vi. So wahr ich leb, spricht Gott der Herr. Absolution. 1560, as above, in 11 stanzas of 4 lines, entitled "A hymn on the power of the keys and the virtue of holy absolution; for the children in Joachimsthal." Thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 1183; in Ledderhose, p. 47; and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 429. It probably suggested the better known hymn, "So wahr ich lebe," q. v., by Johann Heermann. Translated as:— Yea, as I live, Jehovah saith, I do not wish the sinner's death, in full, by Dr. M. Loy, as No. 245, in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

M. B. Landstad

1802 - 1880 Person Name: Magnus B. Landstad Hymnal Number: 493 Author of "O Herre Gud! din Sol saa skjøn" in Kirkesalmebog Magnus Brostrup Landstad (born 7 October 1802 in Måsøy, Norway and died 8 October 1880 in Kristiania) was a Norwegian minister, psalmist and poet who published the first collection of authentic Norwegian traditional ballads in 1853. This work was criticized for unscientific methods, but today it is commonly accepted that he contributed significantly to the preservation of the traditional ballads. Landstad lived with his father Hans Landstad (1771–1838) who was also a minister, first in 1806 to Øksnes, to Vinje in 1811 and to Seljord in 1819. He took a theological degree (cand. theol) in 1827, and worked after that as the resident chaplain in Gausdal for six years. After that he worked in different parishes in Telemark, Østfold before he became minister of Sandar in Vestfold in 1859. He married Wilhelmine Margrete Marie Lassen, in 1828. He is well known for introducing popular, contemporary Norwegian language into the hymns he wrote, contributing significantly to the spirit of Norwegian romantic nationalism which grew in Norway in this period. His greatest single achievement was the Landstad Hymnbook (Kirkepsalmebog), which with later revisions was used in Norwegian (bokmål) parishes from 1869 until 1985. The current official church hymnbook contains a lot of his hymns and his translations of foreign hymns. He was the cousin of Hans Peter Schnitler Krag. The Landstad-institute, which lies in Seljord, is named after him. He was a great grandfather of Magny Landstad, also a famous writer. Publications-- 1852: Norske Folkeviser. 3 vols. Christiania: C. Tönsberg, [1852-]1853. 1869: Kirkesalmebok: efter offentlig Foranstaltning. Kristiania: J. W. Cappelens Forlag, 1871 -- See also in: Wikipedia

F. Rostgaard

Hymnal Number: 527 Author of "Hvo veed, hvor nær mig er min Ende?" in Kirkesalmebog

Ludvig Mathias Lindeman

1812 - 1887 Person Name: Ludv. M. Lindeman Hymnal Number: 435 Composer of "[Apostlerne sad i Jerusalem]" in Kirkesalmebog Ludvig M. Lindeman (b. 1812; d. 1887) was a Norwegian composer and organist. Born in Trondheim, he studied theology in Oslo where he remained the rest of his life. In 1839 he succeeded his brother as the organist and cantor of Oslo Cathedral, a position he held for 48 years up until his death. Lindeman was appointed Knight of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, and was invited to both help christen the new organ in Royal Albert Hall in London, as well as compose for the coronation of King Oscar II and Queen Sophie of Sweden. In 1883, he and his son started the Organist School in Oslo. Lindeman is perhaps best known for his arrangements of Norwegiam folk tales; over the course of his life he collected over 3000 folk melodies and tunes. Laura de Jong

Ernst Stockmann

1634 - 1712 Person Name: E. Stockmann Hymnal Number: 490 Author of "Gud skal al Ting mage" in Kirkesalmebog Preacher and poet

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