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P. P. Bliss

1838 - 1876 Person Name: Philip P. Bliss Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Sing, My Soul, From Bondage Free" in The Cyber Hymnal Philip P. Bliss (b. Clearfield County, PA, 1838; d. Ashtabula, OH, 1876) left home as a young boy to make a living by working on farms and in lumber camps, all while trying to continue his schooling. He was converted at a revival meeting at age twelve. Bliss became an itinerant music teacher, making house calls on horseback during the winter, and during the summer attending the Normal Academy of Music in Genesco, New York. His first song was published in 1864, and in 1868 Dwight L. Moody advised him to become a singing evangelist. For the last two years of his life Bliss traveled with Major D. W. Whittle and led the music at revival meetings in the Midwest and Southern United States. Bliss and Ira D. Sankey published a popular series of hymn collections entitled Gospel Hymns. The first book of the series, Gospel Songs, was published in 1874. Bliss's tragic death at the age of thirty-eight happened near the end of 1876. Philip P. Bliss and his wife were traveling to Chicago to sing for the evangelistic services led by Daniel W. Whittle at Dwight L. Moody's Tabernacle. But a train wreck and fire en route claimed their lives. Bert Polman ================= Bliss, Philip, b. at Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, July 9, 1838. In 1864 he went to Chicago in the employ of Dr. George F. Root, the musician, where he was engaged in conducting musical Institutes, and in composing Sunday School melodies. Originally a Methodist, he became, about 1871, a choirman of the First Congregational Church, Chicago, and the Superintendent of its Sunday Schools. In 1874 he joined D. W. Whittle in evangelical work. To this cause he gave (although a poor man) the royalty of his Gospel Songs, which was worth some thirty thousand dollars. His death was sudden. It occurred in the railway disaster at Ashtabula, Ohio, Dec. 30, 1876. ... Some of his verses have obtained wide popularity in most English-speaking countries. The more widely known, and specially those which are found in collections in use in G. Britain, are in the following American works:— i. The Prize, 1870. 1. I should like to die. Death anticipated. This is one of his earliest compositions, and is unworthy of the position it holds. 2. Through the valley of the shadow I must go. Death anticipated. 3. Whosoever heareth, shout, shout the sound. Jesus the Way. Written during the winter of 1869-70 after hearing Mr. H. Moorhouse (from England) preach on St. John iii. 16. ii. The Charm, 1871. 4. Almost persuaded now to believe. Procrastination. This was suggested by the following passage in a sermon by the Rev. Mr. Brundnge, Bliss being present at its delivery:—" He who is almost persuaded is almost saved, but to be almost saved is to be entirely lost." 5. Ho! my comrades! see the signal. Faithfulness. 6. O! Jerusalem, the golden city, bright, &c. Heaven. 7. On what Foundation do [did] you build? Christ the Foundation. iii. The Song Tree, 1872. 8. Light in the darkness, sailor, day is at hand. Safety. This hymn, “The Life-Boat," has attained to great popularity. The incident upon which it is based, that of the rescue of a ship's crew by a life-boat, is given in detail by Mr. Sankey in his Sacred Songs, &c, No. 99 (large ed.). It is sometimes known by its refrain, "Pull for the shore," &c. iv. The Joy, 1873. 9. In me ye may have peace. Peace. 10. To die is gain. Death anticipated. v. Sunshine, 1873. 11. Down life's dark vale we wander. Death anticipated. 12. More holiness give me. For Holiness. 13. Only an armour-bearer. Soldiers of the Cross. 14. Standing by a purpose true. Faithfulness. 15. This loving Saviour stands patiently. Invitation. vi. Gospel Songs, 1874. 16. A long time I wandered. Peace and Joy. 17. Brightly beams our Father's mercy. Mercy. 18. Come, brethren, as we march along. Praise. 19. Free from the law, O happy condition. Redemption. 20. Have you on the Lord believed? Fullness of Grace. This hymn arose out of the following circumstances :—" A vast fortune was left in the hands of a minister for one of his poor parishioners. Fearing that it might be sqmandered if suddenly bestowed upon him, the wise minister sent him a little at a time, with a note saying, “This is thine; use it wisely; there is more to follow.” Hence also the refrain ‘More to follow,’ by which the hymn is known." 21. How much owest thou? Divine Claims. 22. I know not the hour when my Lord will come. Death anticipated. Suggested by reading the book, The Gates Ajar. 23. See the gentle Shepherd standing. The Good Shepherd. 24. Though the way be sometimes dreary. Divine Leading. 25. Will you meet me at the fountain? Fountain of Living Water. The incident out of which this hymn arose is thus stated in The Christian, No. 365, "At the Industrial Exposition at Chicago it was an everyday appointment to meet at the Central Fountain. Mr. P. P. Bliss, whose mind seemed always set on things above, caught up the words, and wrote this hymn, 'Meet me at the Fountain.'" vii. Gospel Hymns, No. 1, 1875. 26. One offer of salvation. The Name of Jesus. 27. Wandering afar from the dwellings of men. The Lepers. viii. The International Lesson Monthly, 1875. 28. Weary gleaner, whence comest thou? Duty. 29. The whole world was lost in the darkness of Sin. Light of the world. 30. Man of sorrows! what a name. Redemption. 31. The Spirit, O sinner, in mercy doth move. Holy Spirit. ix. Gospel Hymns, No. 2, 1876. 32. At the feet of Jesus. The good choice. 33. Come, sing the Gospel's joyful sound. Salvation. 34. Cut it down, cut it down. Justice and Mercy. 35. Do you see the Hebrew captive? Prayer. 36. Hallelujah, He is risen. Easier. Written in the spring of 1876 and first sung by Bliss on Easter afternoon, 1876, in the Court House Square, Augusta, Georgia, to 5900 people. 37. In Zion's rock abiding. Safety. 38. Repeat the story o'er and o'er. Grace and Peace. 39. Tenderly the Shepherd. The Good Shepherd. x. Gospel Hymns, No. 3, 1878. 40. Hear ye the glad good news from heaven. Faith and Salvation. 41. I will sing of my Redeemer. Praise. xi. Gospel Hymns, No. 4, 1881. 42. 'Tis known on earth and heaven too. More about Jesus. xii. Various. 43. Sing over again to me. Words of Life. This appeared in a paper entitled Words of Life, 1874, The following are undated:— 44. March to the battle-field. Duty and Victory. 45. There is sin in the camp. Hinderances. 46. 'Tis the promise of God. Praise. 47. While the silvery moon-beams, fall, New Birth. 48. God is always near me. Omnipresence. Two hymns," I am so glad that our Father in heaven," and " Sowing the seed by the daylight [dawnlight] fair," (sometimes given as " Sowing our seed in the morning fair ") are usually attributed to Mr. Bliss. In his Gospel Songs, Cincinnati, 1874, however, he lays claim to the music only. Mr. Sankey attributes this last to "E. A. Oakey." With the exception of No. 48, these hymns are given in Mr. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos, Pts. i. and ii. Their popularity is far beyond their literary merits, and is mainly due to the simple melodies to which they are wedded. As a writer of hymns of this class Mr. Bliss is second only to Mrs. Van Alstyne. Many anecdotes concerning hymns of this class are given in American Evangelists; an Account of their work in England and America, by the Rev. Elias Nason, Boston, U.S., Lathrop & Co., 1877. Mr. Bliss is usually known as "P. P. Bliss." This is found on the title-pages of his collections. On his own authority, however, we are enabled to say that his name originally stood thus : “Philipp Bliss.” Early in life he separated the final p from his Christian name, constituted it a capital P, and thus produced "P. P. Bliss." (For this article we are mainly indebted to Professor F. M. Bird, and Mr. H. P. Main.) -John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================== Bliss, Philip , p. 151, i. "Sowing the seed by the daylight fair" is in the Family Treasury , Edinburgh, 1861, pt. i., p. 84. It is said to be by Miss Emily Sullivan Oakey; born at Albany, N. York, Oct. 8, 1829, died May 11, 1883. Note also that Bliss's hymn, No. 43. on p. 150, ii., should read, "Sing them over again to me." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ===================== Bliss, P., p. 150, i. Two works have been brought to our notice, since the issue of our first edition of this Dictionary, which concern this author, viz.:— 1. Memoirs of Philip P. Bliss. Edited by D. W. Whittle. Contributions by Rev. E. P. Goodwin, Ira D. Sankey, and Geo. F. Root. Introduction by D. L. Moody. New York, &c.: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1877. 2. My Life and Sacred Songs. By Ira D. Sankey. With an Introduction by Theodore L. Cuyler, D.D). London: Hodder & Stoughton, and Morgan & Scott, 1906. These works have a special interest for those who use I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos, and all of P. Bliss's publications. To Mr. Sankey's My Life, &c, we direct special attention for P. Bliss's hymns:— “Do you see the Hebrew captive kneeling?" p. 294. "Down life's dark vale we wander." p. 285. "Ho! my comrades, see the signal." p. 105. "'Tis the promise of God full salvation to give." p. 99. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Johann Rist

1607 - 1667 Person Name: Johann von Rist Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "All ye Gentile lands awake!" Rist, Johann, son of Kaspar Rist, pastor at Ottensen, near Hamburg, was born at Ottensen, March 8, 1607, and from his birth was dedicated to the ministry. After passing through the Johanneum at Hamburg and the Gymnasium Illustre at Bremen, he matriculated, in his 21st year, at the University of Rinteln, and there, under Josua Stegmann (q. v.), he received an impulse to hymn-writing. On leaving Rinteln he acted as tutor to the sons of a Hamburg merchant, accompanying them to the University of Rostock, where he himself studied Hebrew, Mathematics and also Medicine. During his residence at Rostock the terrors, of the Thirty Years War almost emptied the University, and Rist himself also lay there for weeks ill of the pestilence. After his recovery he seems to have spent some time at Hamburg, and then, about Michaelmas, 1633, became tutor in the house of the lawyer (Landschreiber) Heinrich Sager, at Heide, in Holstein. There he betrothed himself to Elizabeth, sister of the Judge Franz Stapfel, whose influence seems to have had a good deal to do with Rist's appointment as pastor at Wedel. In the spring of 1635 he married and settled at Wedel (on the Elbe, a few miles below Hamburg), where, spite of various offers of preferment, he remained till his death, on Aug. 31, 1667. (Johann Rist und seine Zeit, by Dr. T. Hansen, Halle, 1872; K. Goedeke's Grundriss, vol. iii., 1887, p. 79; Koch, iii., 212; Bode, p. 135, &c. The statements of the various authorities regarding the period 1624-1635 vary greatly and irreconcilably.) During the Thirty Years War Rist had much to endure from famine, plundering, and pestilence. Otherwise he led a patriarchal and happy life at Wedel, close to the congenial society of Hamburg, and as years went on more and more esteemed and honoured by his contemporaries. The Emperor Ferdinand III. crowned him as a poet in 1644, and in 1653 raised him to the nobility, while nearer home Duke Christian of Mecklenburg appointed him Kirchenrath and Consistorialrath. Among other literary honours he was received in 1645 as a member of the Pegnitz Order, and in 1647 as a member of the Fruitbearing Society, the great German literary union of the 17th century; while in 1660 he himself became the founder and head of the Elbe Swan Order, which however did not survive his death. Rist was an earnest pastor and a true patriot. He of course took the side, and that with all his might, of the Protestants, but he longed as few did for the union of the scattered elements of the body politic in Germany. He was a voluminous and many-sided writer (see the full bibliographies in Hansen and Goedeke as above). His secular works are of great interest to the student of the history of the times, and his occasional poems on marriages, &c, to the genealogist and local historian. Perhaps the most interesting to the general reader are the Friede wünschende Teutschland, 1647, and the Friedejauchzende Teutschland, 1653, two plays in which there are vivid pictures of the times, especially of the condition of the lower classes during the Thirty Years War. These plays, with selections from his other secular poems and from his hymns, are included in his Dichtungen, Leipzig, 1885, edited by Goedeke and E. Goetze. Hansen gives analyses of the secular works, with a few extracts from them; and in his second part gives a full selection from the hymns, often however greatly abridged. As a hymn-writer Rist takes high rank. He wrote some 680 hymns, intended to cover the whole ground of Theology, and to be used by all ranks and classes, and on all the occasions of life. Naturally enough they are not of equal merit, and many are poor and bombastic. Rist meant them rather for private use than for public worship, and during his lifetime they were never used in the church at Wedel. But they were eagerly caught up, set to melodies by the best musicians of the day, and speedily passed into congregational use all over Germany, while even the Roman Catholics read them with delight. Over 200 may be said to have been in common use in Germany, and a large number still hold their place. Unfortunately many are very long. But speaking of Rist's better productions, we may say that their noble and classical style, their objective Christian faith, their scriptualness, their power to console, to encourage, and to strengthen in trust upon God's Fatherly love, and their fervent love to the Saviour (especially seen in the best of his hymns for Advent, and for the Holy Communion), sufficiently justify the esteem in which they were, and are, held in Germany. The best known of Rist's hymns appeared in the following collections:— (1) Himlischs Lieder. This contains 50 hymns. The Erste Zehen is dated Lüneburg, 1641, the 2-6 Zehen are dated 1642 [Royal Library, Berlin]. In the later editions Rist made various alterations, and also expanded the titles of the hymns, these changes being almost all for the worse. (2) Neüer himlischer Lieder sonderbahres Buch, Lüneburg, 1651 [Wernigerode Library]. 50 hymns. (3) Sabbahtische Seelenlust, Lüneburg, 1651 [British Museum and Göttingen]. With 58 hymns on the Gospels for Sundays, &c. (4) Frommer und gottseliger Christen alltägliche Haussmusik, Lüneburg, 1654 [Brit. Mus. and Göttingen], with 70 hymns. (5) Neüe musikalische Fest-Andachten, Lüneburg, 1655 [Wernigerode]. With 52 hymns on the Sunday Gospels. (6) Neüe musikalische Katechismus Andachten, Lüneburg, 1656 [British Museum and Wernigerode]. With 50 hymns. Seven of Rist's hymns are separately noted under their German first lines. The others which have passed into English are:-- i. Du Lebensbrod, Herr Jesu Christ. Holy Communion. In his Haussmusik, 1654, No. 7, p. 32, in 8 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "A devotional hymn, which may be sung when the people are about to take their place at the Holy Communion of the Lord." Founded on Ps. xxiii. Included as No. 473 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. Translated as:— Lord Jesu Christ, the living bread. A good translaton of stanzas i., ii., iii., v., by A. T. Russell, as No. 159 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. ii. Ehr und Dank sei dir gesungen. On the Angels. In his Fest-Andachten, 1655, No. 46, p. 304, in 9 stanzas of 10 lines, entitled "Another hymn of Praise and Thanksgiving on the same Gospel [S. Matt, xviii.] for St. Michael's Day. In which the great God who created the Angels, and appointed them for our service, is from the heart adored and praised." Included in Burg's Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 219, and in Bunsen's Versuch, 1833, No. 233. The translations in common use are:— 1. Praise and thanks to Thee be sung. By Miss Winkworth, omitting st. iii.—vi., in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 205, repeated in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 85. 2. Glory, praise, to Thee be sung. A translation of st. i. as No. 1224, in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886. iii. Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist. Christmas. Founded on Isaiah ix. 2-7. First published in the Erstes Zehen of his Himlische Lieder, 1641, No. 1, p. 1, in 12 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "A hymn of praise on the joyful Birth and Incarnation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 87, and recently, omitting st. viii., as No. 32 in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen 1851. The translations in common use are:— 1. Be cheerful, thou my spirit faint. A translation of st. i. by J. Gambold, as No. 138 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754; repeated as st. i. of No. 437, altered to "Arise my spirit, leap with joy," and with his trs. of st. ii., iv., ix. added. In the edition of 1789, No. 46 (1886, No. 41), it begins, "Arise, my spirit, bless the day.” 2. O Jesu! welcome, gracious Name! This is a translation of st. ii., vi., xii., by A. T. Russell, as No. 55 in his Psalms & Hymns., 1851. Another translation is "My languid spirit, upward spring." By N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 179. iv. Gott sei gelobet, der allein. Joy in God. In his Neüer Himlischer Lieder 1651, p. 126, No. 9, in 13 stanzas of 7 lines, entitled “A joyful hymn of Thanksgiving to God, that He permits us to enjoy our daily bread in health, peace and prosperity, with a humble prayer that He would graciously preserve us in the same." Included in Olearius's Singe-Kunst, 1671, No. 322, and recently in Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz 1850, No. 1696 (1865, No. 1766). The tr. in common use is:— Now God be praised, and God alone . By Miss Winkworth, omitting st. iii., vi., viii., ix., in her Christian Singers, 1869, p. 192. Repeated, abridged, in Statham's Collection, Edinburgh, 1869, No. 63 (1870, No. 110). v. Jesu, der du meine Seele. Lent. In the Erstes Zehen of his Himlische Lieder, 1641, p. 35, No. 7, in 12 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "A heartfelt hymn of penitence to his most beloved Lord Jesus, for the forgiveness of his many and manifold sins." Founded on prayer viii. in Class in. of J. Arndt's Paradiesgärtlein, 1612. In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 382. The translations in common use are:—- 1. Thou hast cancell'd my transgression. A translation of st. vi., viii., as No. 1022, in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 107). 2. Jesu! Who in sorrow dying. A free translation of st. i., iii. lines 1-4, v. 11. 5-8, xii., by A. T. Russell, as No. 78 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. vi. 0 Jesu, meine Wonne. Holy Communion. This beautiful hymn appears in Rist's Hauss-musik, 1654, No. 9, p. 42, in 14 stanzas of 4 lines, entitled "The heartfelt Thanksgiving of a pious Christian when he has partaken of the Holy Communion." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 285. The translation in common use is:— 0 Sun of my salvation. A good tr. of st. i., iii., v., vi., by A. T. Russell, as No, 160 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Another translation is:— “0 Christ, my joy, my soul's delight." By Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 65. vii. Werde licht, du Stadt der Heiden. Epiphany. In his Fest-Andachten , 1655, p. 82, No. 13, in 15 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Another festival hymn of the day of the Manifestation of Christ, in which the glorious, godlike, and eternal Light, which has graciously arisen on us poor heathen in thick darkness, is devotedly contemplated." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 82. Translated as:— 1. All ye Gentile lands awake. A good tr. of st. i.-iv., vi., vii., xiv. xv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 30. Repeated, abridged, in Schaffs Christ in Song, 1869 aud 1870, and in Flett's Collection, Paisley, 1871. 2. Rise, O Salem, rise and shine. A good translation of stanzas i., iii., vii., xiv., xv., based on her Lyra Germanica version but altered in metre, by Miss Winkworth, in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 38. Repeated in J. L. Porter's Collection, 1876, and the Pennsylvania Lutheran Ch. Book, 1868. viii. Wie wohl hast du gelabet. Holy Communion. In his Neüer Himlischer Lieder, 1651, p. 78, in 9 stanzas of 12 lines, entitled "A hymn of heartfelt Praise and Thanksgiving after the reception of the Holy Communion." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 291. The translation in common use is:— O Living Bread from Heaven. A good tr., omitting st. iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 103; repeated in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 94, omitting the trsanslations of iii., v., vi. Her translations of st. i.-iii., ix. were included, slightly altered, in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Ch. Book, 1868. The following have also been tr. into English:— ix. Heut ist das rechte Jubelfest. Whitsuntide. In his Fest-Andachten, 1655, p. 216, No. 33, in 12 stanzas, founded on the Gospel for Whitsunday (St. John xiv.). In Olearius's Singe-Kunst, 1671, No. 704, and Porst's Gesang-Buch, ed. 1855, No. 173. The text translation is that in Bunsen's Allgemeine Gesang-Buch, 1846, No. 114, where it begins with st. v., "Heut hat der grosse Himmeleherr." Translated as "This day sent forth His heralds bold." By Miss Cox, in the Churchman's Shilling Magazine, June 1867. x. Ich will den Herren loben. Praise and Thanksgiving. Founded on Ps. xxxiv. In his Neüer Himlischer Lieder, 1651, p. 132 (No. 10 in pt. ii.), in 12 st. of 8 1. This form is in Burg's Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 174G, No. 1201. In his Haussmusik, 1654, p. 348, No. 64, Rist rewrote it to 6 stanzas of 12 lines, and of this form st. iv.-vi., beginning "Man lobt dich in der Stille, ed. 1863, No. 1018. The translation from this last text is "To Thee all praise ascendeth." In the British Herald, May 1866, p. 265, repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

St. John of Damascus

675 - 787 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Ere the morn in beauty wake" in Hymns of the Greek Church Eighth-century Greek poet John of Damascus (b. Damascus, c. 675; d. St. Sabas, near Jerusalem, c. 754) is especially known for his writing of six canons for the major festivals of the church year. John's father, a Christian, was an important official at the court of the Muslim caliph in Damascus. After his father's death, John assumed that position and lived in wealth and honor. At about the age of forty, however, he became dissatisfied with his life, gave away his possessions, freed his slaves, and entered the monastery of St. Sabas in the desert near Jerusalem. One of the last of the Greek fathers, John became a great theologian in the Eastern church. He defended the church's use of icons, codified the practices of Byzantine chant, and wrote about science, philosophy, and theology. Bert Polman ======================== John of Damascus, St. The last but one of the Fathers of the Greek Church, and the greatest of her poets (Neale). He was of a good family in Damascus, and educated by the elder Cosmas in company with his foster-brother Cosmas the Melodist (q. v.). He held some office under the Caliph. He afterwards retired to the laura of St. Sabas, near Jerusalem, along with his foster-brother. There he composed his theological works and his hymns. He was ordained priest of the church of Jerusalem late in life. He lived to extreme old age, dying on the 4th December, the day on which he is commemorated in the Greek calendar, either in his 84th or 100th year (circa 780). He was called, for some unknown reason, Mansur, by his enemies. His fame as a theologian rests on his work, the first part of which consists of philosophical summaries, the second dealing with heresies, and the third giving an account of the orthodox faith. His three orations in favour of the Icons, from which he obtained the name of Chrysorrhous and The Doctor of Christian Art, are very celebrated. The arrangement of the Octoechusin accordance with the Eight Tones was his work, and it originally contained no other Canons than his. His Canons on the great Festivals are his highest achievements. In addition to his influence on the form and music, Cardinal Pitra attributes to him the doctrinal character of the later Greek hymnody. He calls him the Thomas Aquinas of the East. The great subject round which his hymns are grouped is The Incarnation, developed in the whole earthly career of the Saviour. In the legendary life of the saint the Blessed Virgin Mary is introduced as predicting this work: the hymns of John of Damascus should eclipse the Song of Moses, rival the cherubim, and range all the churches, as maidens beating their tambours, round their mother Jerusalem (Pitra, Hymn. Grecque, p. 33). The legend illustrates not only the dogmatic cast of the hymns, but the introduction of the Theotokion and Staurotheotokion, which becomes the prevalent close of the Odes from the days of St. John of Damascus: the Virgin Mother presides over all. The Canons found under the name of John Arklas (one of which is the Iambic Canon at Pentecost) are usually attributed to St. John of Damascus, and also those under the name of John the Monk. Some doubt, however, attaches to the latter, because they are founded on older rhythmical models which is not the case with those bearing the name of the Damascene, and they are not mentioned in the ancient Greek commentaries on his hymns. One of these is the Iambic Canon for Christmas. His numerous works, both in prose and verse, were published by Le Quien, 1712; and a reprint of the same with additions by Migne, Paris, 1864. Most of his poetical writings are contained in the latter, vol. iii. pp. 817-856, containing those under the title Carmina; and vol. iii. pp. 1364-1408, the Hymni. His Canon of SS. Peter & Paul is in Hymnographie Grecque, by Cardinal Pitra, 1867. They are also found scattered throughout the Service Books of the Greek Church, and include Iambic Canons on the Birth of Christ, the Epiphany, and on Pentecost; Canons on Easter, Ascension, the Transfiguration, the Annunciation, and SS. Peter & Paul: and numerous Idiomela. In addition, Cardinal Mai found a manuscript in the Vatican and published the same in his Spicilegium Romanum, which contained six additional Canons, viz.: In St. Basilium; In St. Chrysostomum; In St. Nicolaum; In St. Petrum; In St. Georgium, and In St. Blasium. But M. Christ has urged grave objections to the ascription of these to St. John of Damascus (Anthologia Graeca Carminum Christorium, p. xlvii.). Daniel's extracts in his Thesaurus Hymnologicus, vol. iii. pp. 80, 97, extend to six pieces. Dr. Neale's translations of portions of these works are well known. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

J. Hart

1712 - 1768 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "The Agony" Hart, Joseph, was born in London in 1712. His early life is involved in obscurity. His education was fairly good; and from the testimony of his brother-in-law, and successor in the ministry in Jewin Street, the Rev. John Hughes, "his civil calling was" for some time "that of a teacher of the learned languages." His early life, according to his own Experience which he prefaced to his Hymns, was a curious mixture of loose conduct, serious conviction of sin, and endeavours after amendment of life, and not until Whitsuntide, 1757, did he realize a permanent change, which was brought about mainly through his attending divine service at the Moravian Chapel, in Fetter Lane, London, and hearing a sermon on Rev. iii. 10. During the next two years many of his most earnest and impassioned hymns were written. These appeared as:— Hymns composed on Various Subjects, with the Author's Experience, London, 1759. During this year he became the Minister of the Independent Chapel, Jewin Street, London. In 1762 he added a Supplement to his Hymns; and in 1765 an Appendix. In modern editions of his Hymns these three are embodied in one volume as:— Hymns composed on Various Subjects: With the Author's Experience, The Supplement and Appendix. By the Rev. Joseph Hart, late Minister of the Gospel in Jewin Street, London. Allott & Co. [no date]. Hart died on May 24, 1768. At one time his hymns were widely used, especially by Calvinistic Nonconformists. Many of them are of merit, and are marked by great earnestness, and passionate love of the Redeemer. The best known are: “Come, Holy Spirit, come"; “Come, ye sinners, poor and wretched"; "This God is the God we adore"; and "Lord, look on all assembled here." Those which are more limited in their use include:— i. From his Hymns, &c, 1759. 1. Descend from heaven, celestial Dove. Whitsuntide. No. 6, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory., 1872, No. 374, st. iv., v. are omitted. It is in extensive use in America. 2. Great High Priest, we view Thee stooping. High Priesthood of Christ. No. 56, pt. ii., in 3 stanzas of 8 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 236; Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, N. Y., 1872, No. 435, &c. 8. How wondrous are the works of God. Redeeming Love. No. 21, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, st. i.-iv. are given as No. 11. 4. If ever it could come to pass. Final Perseverance. No. 58, in 3 stanzas of 6 lines. Repeated in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 729. 6. Jesus is our God and Saviour . Faith and Repentance. No. 54, in 7 stanzas of 8 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 146, st. iv. is omitted. In the London Hymn Book (enlarged), 1879, st. iii. and v. are given as "Nothing but Thy blood, 0 Jesus." 6. Jesus, while He dwelt below. Gethsemane. No. 75, in 23 stanzas of 6 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 230, sixteen stanzas are broken up into three parts: (i.) "Jesus, while He dwelt below"; (ii.) "Full of love to man's lost race"; (iii.) "There my God bore all my guilt." A cento is also given in Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, N. Y., 1872, No. 441, as "Many woes had Christ [He] endured." It is composed of st. viii., ix., xiii., xx., xxiii., slightly altered. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, No. 34, 8 stanzas are given in two parts: pt. i. as, "Jesus, while He dwelt below"; pt. ii. "Eden from each flowery bed." 7. Lamb of God, we fall before Thee. Christ All in All. No. 17 in 4 stanzas of 8 lines. It is in various collections, and as altered in Kennedy , 1863, No. 1171, is much improved. 8. Let us all with grateful praises. Christmas. No. 14 in 7 stanzas of 8 lines. In Spurgeon's 0ur Own Hymn Book, 1866, it is reduced to 4 stanzas of 4 lines. 9. Lord, look on all assembled here. For a Public Fast. No. 96, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. It is in several of the older hymnbooks. 10. Lord, we lie before Thy feet. Lent. No. 74, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, and based on 2 Chron. xx. 20. In Spurgeon's 0ur Own Hymn Book, 1866, stanza i., iii., vi. are given as No. 585. 11. Mercy is welcome news indeed. God's Mercy in pardoning Sin. No. 51, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Luke vii. 42. In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 544. 12. Much we talk of Jesu's blood. Passiontide. No. 41, in 4 st. of 8 lines, on Lam. i. 12. In Spurgeon, 1866, it is abridged to 4 stanzas of 4 lines. 13. Bow from the garden to the cross. Good Friday. No. 63, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines, and entitled, "The Crucifixion." In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 274, st. ii.-v., vi.-ix. are given as "See how the patient Jesus stands." 14. The Fountain of Christ Assist me to sing. The Fountain. No. 86, in 8 stanzas of 8 lines on Zech. xiii. 1. In Spurgeon, 1866, st. i., v., vii., viii., are given as No. 375. 15. The moon and stars shall lose their light. Advent. No. 48, in 4 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Matt. xxiv. 35. In Spurgeon, 1866. 16. The sinner that truly believes. Saving Faith. No. 88, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines, and entitled, "Saving Faith" In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 533, st. ii. is omitted, and the opening line is altered to "The moment a sinner believes." ii. From his Supplement, 1762. 17. Behold what awful pomp. Advent. No. 52, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. It is usually abridged as in the American Methodist Episcopal Hymns, 1849, No. 1107. 18. Christ is the Eternal Rock. The Offices of Christ. No. 27, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines. In Windle's Metrical Psalter & Hymnal, 1862, stanzas i., ii., v. are given as No. 53. 19. Christians, dismiss your fear. Easter. No. 33, in 4 stanzas of 8 lines into Dr. Alexander's Augustine Hymn Book, 1849, No. 79, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines. 20. Dismiss us with Thy blessing, Lord. Close of Service. No. 78, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. In a few collections. 21. Gird thy loins up, Christian soldier. The Christian Armour . No. 29, in 5 stanzas of 8 lines, on Eph. vi. 11. Found in several of the older, and a few of the modern collections. 22. Glory to God on high, Our peace, &c. Holy Communion. No. 3, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, 1872, No. 704, st. v., vi. are omitted. 23. Holy Ghost, inspire our praises. On behalf of Ministers. No. 77, in 5 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, No. 412, st. iii.-v. are given as, "Happy soul that hears and follows." 24. Jesus once for sinners slain. Holy Communion. No. 18, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In American use. 25. Lord, help us on Thy word to feed. Close of Service. No. 80, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. In several modern hymnbooks. 26. O for a glance of heavenly day. Lent. No. 64, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines. In Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, 1872, and other American collections it is usually repeated in full. In Bickersteth's Christian Psalmody, 1833, it was given as, "Lord, shed a beam of heavenly day," and this is repeated in modern hymnbooks. 27. Once more before we part. Close of Service. No. 79, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. Popular in Great Britain and America. 28. Once more we come before our God. Before a Sermon. No. 21, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, into Hatfield, 1872, No. 111, and others. 29. Sons of God by bless'd adoption. Burial. No. 45, in 3 stanzas of 8 lines, into Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 981, as "Sons of God by blest adoption." 30. Suffering Saviour, Lamb of God . Holy Communion. No. 14, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. In W. F. Stevenson's Hymns for Church & Home, 1873, st. iii., vii. are omitted. 31. That doleful night before His death. Holy Communion. No. 17, in 2 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, st. i. 11. 4-8, and st. ii., are given as, "To keep Thy Feast, Lord, we are met." iii. From his Appendix, 1765. 32. Christians, in your several stations. Christian Duty. No. 7, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines. It is slightly altered in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 742, and dated 1759 in error. 33. Prayer was [is] appointed to convey. Prayer. No. 12 in 6 stanzas of 4 lines into Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 542, with alterations and the omission of st. ii., v. In some American collections it begins, "Prayer is to God, the soul's sure way." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================= Hart, Joseph, p. 492, ii. Other hymns in common use are— 1. The blest memorials of Thy grief (1762). Holy Communion. 2. To comprehend the great Three-One (1759). Holy Trinity. 3. Vain man, thy fond pursuits forbear (1759). Death. 4. When the blest day of Pentecost (1759). Whitsuntide. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Thomas Kelly

1769 - 1855 Person Name: Kelly Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Glory, glory to our King!" in The Voice of Praise Kelly, Thomas, B.A., son of Thomas Kelly, a Judge of the Irish Court of Common Pleas, was born in Dublin, July 13, 1769, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He was designed for the Bar, and entered the Temple, London, with that intention; but having undergone a very marked spiritual change he took Holy Orders in 1792. His earnest evangelical preaching in Dublin led Archbishop Fowler to inhibit him and his companion preacher, Rowland Hill, from preaching in the city. For some time he preached in two unconsecrated buildings in Dublin, Plunket Street, and the Bethesda, and then, having seceded from the Established Church, he erected places of worship at Athy, Portarlington, Wexford, &c, in which he conducted divine worship and preached. He died May 14, 1854. Miller, in his Singers & Songs of the Church, 1869, p. 338 (from which some of the foregoing details are taken), says:— "Mr. Kelly was a man of great and varied learning, skilled in the Oriental tongues, and an excellent Bible critic. He was possessed also of musical talent, and composed and published a work that was received witli favour, consisting of music adapted to every form of metre in his hymn-book. Naturally of an amiable disposition and thorough in his Christian piety, Mr. Kelly became the friend of good men, and the advocate of every worthy, benevolent, and religious cause. He was admired alike for his zeal and his humility; and his liberality found ample scope in Ireland, especially during the year of famine." Kelly's hymns, 765 in all, were composed and published over a period of 51 years, as follows:— (1) A Collection of Psalms and Hymns extracted from Various Authors, by Thomas Kelly, A.B., Dublin, 1802. This work contains 247 hymns by various authors, and an Appendix of 33 original hymns by Kelly. (2) Hymns on Various Passages of Scripture, Dublin, 1804. Of this work several editions were published: 1st, 1804; 2nd, 1806; 3rd, 1809; 4th, 1812. This last edition was published in two divisions, one as Hymns on Various Passages of Scripture, and the second as Hymns adapted for Social Worship. In 1815 Kelly issued Hymns by Thomas Kelly, not before Published. The 5th edition, 1820, included the two divisions of 1812, and the new hymns of 1815, as one work. To the later editions of 1820, 1826, 1836, 1840, 1846, and 1853, new hymns were added, until the last published by M. Moses, of Dublin, 1853, contained the total of 765. As a hymn-writer Kelly was most successful. As a rule his strength appears in hymns of Praise and in metres not generally adopted by the older hymn writers. His "Come, see the place where Jesus lay" (from "He's gone, see where His body lay"),"From Egypt lately come"; “Look, ye saints, the sight is glorious"; "On the mountain's top appearing"; "The Head that once was crowned with thorns"; "Through the day Thy love has spared us"; and “We sing the praise of Him Who died," rank with the first hymns in the English language. Several of his hymns of great merit still remain unknown through so many modern editors being apparently adverse to original investigation. In addition to the hymns named and others, which are annotated under their respective first lines, the following are also in common use:— i. From the Psalms and Hymns, 1802:— 1. Grant us, Lord, Thy gracious presence. Commencement of Divine Worship. 2. Jesus, Immortal King, go on [display]. Missions. 3. Saviour, through the desert lead us. Divine Guidance Desired. 4. The day of rest once more [again] comes round. Sunday. 5. We've no abiding city here. Seeking Heaven. ii. From the Hymns on Varous Passages of Scripture, first edition, 1804 :— 6. Boundless glory, Lord, be thine. Praise for the Gospel. 7. By whom shall Jacob now arise? Epiphany. 8. Glory, glory to our King. Praise to Christ as King. 9. How pleasant is the sound of praise. Praise for Redemption. 10. How sweet to leave the world awhile. In Retirement, or For a Retreat. 11. Inform I long had bowed the knee. Jesus, the Saviour, or Praise for Salvation. 12. It is finished! sinners, hear it. Good Friday. 13. Jesus, the Shepherd of the sheep. The Good Shepherd. 14. Let reason vainly boast her power. Death. 15. Poor and afflicted, Lord, are Thine. Affliction. 16. Praise we Him to Whose kind favour. Close of Service. 11. Spared a little longer. Safety in God. 18. Stricken, smitten, and afflicted. Passiontide. ii. From the Hymns, &c, second edition, 1806:— 19. Far from us be grief and sadness. Joy of Believers. 20. Give us room that we may dwell. Missions. 21. Glory, glory everlasting. Praise of Jesus. 22. God has.turned my grief to gladness. Joy after Sorrow. 23. Happy they who trust in Jesus. Peace in Jesus. 24. Hark, the notes of angels singing. Angels praising Jesus. 25. Hark! 'tis a martial sound. Christian Life a Warfare. 26. I hear a sound [voice] that comes from far. The Gospel Message. 27. Jesus is gone up on high. Divine Worship. 28. Now [O] may the Gospel's conquering power. Home Missions. In the 1853 edition of the Hymns it begins “O may the Gospel's conqu'ring force." 29. O Zion, when I think on thee. Desiring Heaven. 30. Praise the Saviour, ye who know Him. Praise of Jesus. 31. See from Zion's sacred mountain. The Fountain of Life. 32. The atoning work is done. Jesus the High Priest. 33. Zion is Jehovah's dwelling. The Church of God. 34. Zion stands by hills surrounded. The Safety of the Church. 35. Zion's King shall reign victorious. Missions. iv. From the Hymns, &c, 3rd edition, 1809:— 36. Behold the Temple of the Lord. The Church a Spiritual Temple. 37. Blessed Fountain, full of grace. Fountain for Sin. 38. Brethren, come, our Saviour bids us. Holy Communion. 39. Fly, ye seasons, fly still faster. Second Advent Desired. 40. God of Israel, we adore Thee. Evening. 41. Gracious Lord, my heart is fixed. Trust and Peace. 42. Hark, a voice! it comes from heaven. Death. 43. Hark, that shout of rapt'rous joy. Second Advent. 44. If our warfare be laborious. Labour and Rest . 45. Lo, He comes, let all adore Him. Missions. 46. Nothing know we of the season. Time of Second Advent uncertain. 47. O had I the wings of a dove. Holiness and Heaven desired. 48. O where is now that glowing love. Despondency. 49. Our Father sits on yonder throne. God the Father. 50. Ours is a rich and royal Feast. Holy Communion. 51. Shepherd of the chosen number. Safety in the Good Shepherd. 52. We're bound for yonder land. Life, a Voyage. 53. Welcome sight! the Lord descending. The Advent. 54. What is life? 'tis but a vapour. Death anticipated. 55. Who is this that comes from Edom? Ascension. 56. Why those fears ? Behold 'tis Jesus. Stilling the Sea. 57. Without blood is no remission. Passiontide. 58. Yes, we trust the day is breaking. Missions. v. FromHymns: Not before Published, 1815:— 59. Behold the Lamb with glory crowned. Exaltation of Christ. 60. God is love, His word has said it. God is Love. 61. God of our salvation, hear us. Opening or Close of Divine Worship. 62. In Thy Name, O Lord, assembling. Commencement of Divine Worship. 63. Keep us, Lord, O [and] keep us ever. Divine Worship. 64. Let sinners saved give thanks, and sing. Praise for Salvation. 65. Praise the Lord Who died to save us. Passiontide. 66. Salvation is of God alone. God the Author of Salvation. 67. Saviour, come, Thy [saints] friends await Thee [are waiting] . Second Advent desired. 68. Sweet were the sounds that reached our ears. Divine Mercy. 69. We'll sing of the Shepherd that died. The Lost Sheep. 70. When we cannot see our way. Trust and Peace. 71. Who is this that calms the ocean? Stilling the Sea. vi. From the Hymns on F. Passages of Scripture, &c, eds. 1820 and 1826 :-— 72. Grace is the sweetest sound. Divine Grace. 73. Now let a great effectual door. Missions. 74. Now may the mighty arm awake. Missions. 75. Now may the Spirit from above. Home Missions. 76. Sing, sing His lofty praise. Praise of Jesus. 77. Sound, 6ound the truth abroad. Missions. 78. Speed Thy servants, Saviour, speed them. Departure of Missionaries. vii. From the Hymns on Various Passages, &c, 1836:— 79. Come, O Lord, the heavens rending. Prayer for Blessings. 80. The night is far spent, the day is at hand. The Second Advent. viii. From the Hymns on Various Passages, &c, circa 1845:— 81. Joyful be the hours today. Sunday. 82. Lord, behold us few and weak. Opening of Divine Service. 83. Meet Thy people, Saviour, meet us. Meetings for Prayer. 84. Saviour, send a blessing to us. Prayer for Blessings. 85. Sing of Jesus, sing for ever. Praise of Jesus. ix. From the Hymns on Various Passages, &c, 1853:— 86. Precious volume, what thou doest. Holy Scripture. 87. Unfold to us, O Lord, unfold. Divine aid to reading Holy Scripture. All these hymns, together with those annotated under their respective first lines are in the 1853 edition of Kelly's Hymns published in Dublin by M. Moses, and in London by Simpkin, Marshall & Co. Kelly's musical editions are issued by the same publishers. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Kelly, Thomas, p. 615, i. Other hymns in common use are: 1. Behold the Man! How glorious He. (1809.) Good Friday. 2. Jesus the [Thou] Shepherd of the Sheep. (1804.) Good Shepherd. 3. Saved ourselves by Jesu's blood. (1802.) For a Revival. 4. Saviour, 'tis to [unto] Thee. (1853*.) Lent. 5. See the vineyard lately planted. (1806.) Missions. Sometimes given as "See, O Lord, the vineyard planted." 6. Sing aloud to God our strength. (1809.) Praise to the Father. 7. Sing, sing His lofty praise. (1820.) Praise to Jesus. Sometimes as "Hail our eternal King" (p. 615, No. 76). 8. Sing of Him Who bore our guilt. (1853*.) Praise to Jesus. 9. Sing we praise to God above, God our Saviour, &c. (1815.) Praise for Divine Mercy. 10. Sing we praise to God above, Sing we praise, &c. (1853*.) Praise. 11. Sons of Zion, raise your songs. (1820-26) The Exalted Saviour. 12. The Lord Himself will keep. (1809.) From “We're bound for yonder land" (sec p. 615, No. 52.) 13. The God [Lord] of glory dwells on high. (1809.) Humility and Love of Christ. 14. The people of the Lord Are on their way, &c. (1820.) Life a Pilgrimage. 15. Thus saith God of His Anointed. (1809.) Missions. 16. 'Tis to us no cause of sorrow. (1815.) Resignation. 17. To the Ark away, or perish. (1815.) Safety in Jesus only. 18. To our Lord a throne is given. (1838.) Christ the King. 19. Trust ye in the Lord for ever. (1853*.) Trust in God. 20. We'll sing in spite of scorn. (1806.) Christmas. From this "The long-expected morn" is taken. 21. What tongue can tell, what fancy paint. (1806.) Saints in Glory 22. What were Sinai's awful wonders. (1809.) Advent. 23. Whence those sounds symphonious? (1815.) Christmas. 24. While in the [this] world we still [yet] remain. (1806.) Communion of Saints. 25. Yes, 'tis a rough and thorny road. (1809.) Resignation. Sometimes given as "Though rough and thorny be the way." The dates given above are those of the various editions of Kelly's Hymns. The date 1853* indicates that the hymn is in the 1853 ed. of the Hymns, but had also appeared in a previous edition which we have not seen. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Paul Gerhardt

1607 - 1676 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Christian Contentment" in Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs Paul Gerhardt (b. Gräfenheinichen, Saxony, Germany, 1607; d. Lubben, Germany, 1676), famous author of Lutheran evangelical hymns, studied theology and hymnody at the University of Wittenberg and then was a tutor in Berlin, where he became friends with Johann Crüger. He served the Lutheran parish of Mittenwalde near Berlin (1651-1657) and the great St. Nicholas' Church in Berlin (1657-1666). Friederich William, the Calvinist elector, had issued an edict that forbade the various Protestant groups to fight each other. Although Gerhardt did not want strife between the churches, he refused to comply with the edict because he thought it opposed the Lutheran "Formula of Concord," which con­demned some Calvinist doctrines. Consequently, he was released from his position in Berlin in 1666. With the support of friends he became archdeacon at Lubben in 1669 and remained there until his death. Gerhardt experienced much suffering in his life;­ he and his parishioners lived in the era of the Thirty Years' War, and his family experi­enced incredible tragedy: four of his five children died young, and his wife died after a prolonged illness. In the history of hymnody Gerhardt is considered a transitional figure-he wrote at a time when hymns were changing from a more objective, confes­sional, and corporate focus to a pietistic, devotional, and personal one. Like other German hymns, Gerhardt's were lengthy and intended for use throughout a service, a group of stanzas at a time. More than 130 of his hymns were published in various editions of Cruger's Praxis Pietatis Melica, the Crüger-Runge Gesangbuch (1653), and Ebeling's Das andere Dutzeud geistliche Andachtslieder Herrn Paul Gerhardts (1666-1667). John Wesley and Catherine Winkworth both made famous English translations of Gerhardt's texts. Bert Polman ====================== Gerhardt, Paulus, son of Christian Gerhardt, burgomaster of Gräfenhaynichen, near Wittenberg, was born at Grafenhaynichen, Mar. 12, 1607. On January 2, 1628, he matriculated at the University of Wittenberg. In the registers of St. Mary's church, Wittenberg, his name appears as a godfather, on July 13, 1641, described still as "studiosus," and he seems to have remained in Wittenberg till at least the end of April, 1642. He appears to have gone to Berlin in 1642 or 1643, and was there for some time (certainly after 1648) a tutor in the house of the advocate Andreas Barthold, whose daughter (Anna Maria, b. May 19, 1622, d. March 5, 1668) became his wife in 1655. During this period he seems to have frequently preached in Berlin. He was appointed in 1651, at the recommendation of the Berlin clergy, Lutheran Probst (chief pastor) at Mittenwalde, near Berlin, and ordained to this post Nov. 18, 1651. In July, 1657, he returned to Berlin as third diaconus of St. Nicholas's church; but becoming involved in the contest between the Elector Friedrich Wilhelm (who was of the Reformed Church) and the Lutheran clergy of Berlin, he was deposed from his office in February, 1666, though he still remained in Berlin. In Nov. 1668, he accepted the post of archidiaconus at Lübben, on the Spree, was installed in June, 1669, and remained there till his death on June 7, 1676 (Koch, iii. 297-326; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, viii. 774-783, &c). The outward circumstances of Gerhardt's life were for the most part gloomy. His earlier years were spent amid the horrors of the Thirty Years' War. He did not obtain a settled position in life till he was 44 years of age. He was unable to marry till four years later; and his wife, after a long illness, died during the time that he was without office in Berlin; while of the five children of the marriage only one passed the period of childhood. The sunniest period of his life was during the early years of his Berlin ministry (i.e. 1657-1663), when he enjoyed universal love and esteem; while his latter years at Lübben as a widower with one surviving child were passed among a rough and unsympathising people. The motto on his portrait at Lübben not unjustly styles him "Theologus in cribro Satanae versatus." Gerhardt ranks, next to Luther, as the most gifted and popular hymnwriter of the Lutheran Church. Gervinus (ed. 1842, pt. iii. p. 366), the well-known historian of German literature, thus characterises him:— "He went back to Luther's most genuine type of hymn in such manner as no one else had done, only so far modified as the requirements of his time demanded. In Luther's time the belief in Free Grace and the work of the Atonement, in Redemption and the bursting of the gates of Hell was the inspiration of his joyful confidence; with Gerhardt it is the belief in the Love of God. With Luther the old wrathful God of the Romanists assumed the heavenly aspect of grace and mercy; with Gerhardt the merciful Righteous One is a gentle loving Man. Like the old poets of the people he is sincerely and unconstrainedly pious, naive, and hearty; the bliss fulness of his faith makes him benign and amiable; in his way of writing he is as attractive, simple, and pleasing as in his way of thinking." With a firm grasp of the objective realities of the Christian Faith, and a loyal adherence to the doctrinal standpoint of the Lutheran Church, Gerhardt is yet genuinely human; he takes a fresh, healthful view both of nature and of mankind. In his hymns we see the transition to the modern subjective tone of religious poetry. Sixteen of his hymns begin with, “I." Yet with Gerhardt it is not so much the individual soul that lays bare its sometimes morbid moods, as it is the representative member of the Church speaking out the thoughts and feelings he shares with his fellow members; while in style Gerhardt is simple and graceful, with a considerable variety of verse form at his command, and often of bell-like purity in tone. From the first publication of Gerhardt's hymns they at once came into favour among all ranks and creeds; and a large proportion are among the hymns most cherished and most widely used by German-speaking Christians at the present day. They appeared principally in the various editions of Crüger's Praxis, and the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653. The first collected edition was prepared by J. G. Ebeling, and published in separate "Dozens" 1-4 in 1666, 5-10 in 1667, i.e. 120 in all. In the edition of J. H. Feustking, Zerbst, 1707, a few stanzas were intercalated (from manuscripts in the possession of Gerhardt's surviving son), but no new hymns were added. Among modern editions of Gerhardt's hymns (mostly following the text of Ebeling) may be mentioned those by Langbecker, 1842; Schultz, 1842; Wackernagel, 1843; Becker, 1851; Goedeke, 1877, and Gerok, 1878. The Historico-Critical edition of Dr. J. F. Bachmann, 1866, is the most complete (with 11 additional pieces hardly Church hymns), and reverts to the pre-Ebeling text. The length of many of Gerhardt's hymns ("Ein Lämmlein" is 10 stanzas of 10 lines; "Fröhlich soil," 15 stanzas of 8 lines, &c), and the somewhat intricate metres of others, have caused his hymns to be less used in English than otherwise might have been the case; but a considerable proportion have come in some form or other into English hymnbooks. A large selection, translated with scrupulous faithfulness but not retaining much of the lyric grace of the originals, was published by the Rev. John Kelly, in 1867, as Paul Gerhardt’s Spiritual Songs; while many individual hymns have been translated by John Wesley, Miss Winkworth, Miss Cox, Miss Borthwick, and many others. His translations from St. Bernard are noted under "O Haupt voll Blut." There are separate notes on 19 of his greater hymns. Besides these the following have passed into English:— I. Hymns in English common use: i. Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonn. Thanksgiving after great sorrow and affliction. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 249, in 15 stanzas of 7 1.; thence in Wackernagel’s ed. of his Geistliche Lieder, No. 87, and Bachmann's ed., No. 64. In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 402. Translated as:— Cometh sunshine after rain. A good translation, omitting stanzas iv.-vii., x., xi., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 100 (translations of x., xi. added to 2nd ed., 1856). Repeated, omitting the translations of stanzas ii., x.-xii., as No. 4 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. In the Christian Hymn Book, Cincinnati, 1865, No. 799, begins with st. xiii., "Now as long as here I roam." Another translation is:—"After clouds we see the sun," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 261. ii. Die Zeit ist nunmehr nah. Day of Judgment—Second Advent. Founded on Acts iii. 20. In the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch 1653, No. 367, iii 18 stanzas of 6 lines, and thence in Wackernagel's edition of his Geistliche Lieder, 1843, No. 119 (1874, No. 124), and Bachmann's edition, No. 40. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 1517. Translated as:— O Christ! how good and fair. Being a translation of stanzas iii., iv., vi., vii., x.-xiii., xvii., by Mrs. Charles, in her Voice of Christian Life in Song, 1858, p. 242. Her translations of stanzas iii., x., xii., are No. 150 in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection, 1867. Other trs. are:—(1) "May I when time is o'er," of stanzas vii., viii. as part of No. 831 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789; in the 1801 and later eds. (1886, No. 1229), beginning, "I shall, when time is o'er." (2) “The time is very near," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 341. iii. Gottlob, nun ist erschollen. Peace. Thanksgiving for the Proclamation of the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, after the Thirty Years’ War. In Crüger's Praxis 1656, No. 409, in 6 stanzas of 12 lines, and thence in Wackernagel's edition of his Geistliche Lieder, No. 64, and Bachmann's ed., No. 84; and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 589. Translated as: — Thank God it hath resounded. A full and good tr. by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 156, repeated, omitting stanza ii., in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. St. i., v., vi., form No. 49 in M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885. Another tr. is: ”Praise God! for forth hath sounded," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 251. iv. Ich, der ich oft in tiefes Leid. Ps. cxlv. First published in J. G. Ebeling's edition of his Geistliche Andachten Dritte Dutzet, 1666, No. 27, in 18 stanzas of 7 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 95, and Bachmann's ed., No. 103; also in the Berlin Geistliche LiederSchatz, ed. 1863, No. 1004. Translated as:— I who so oft in deep distress . A good translation, omitting stanzas ii.-iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 149. Her translations of stanzas i., xiii.-xvi., xviii., were included as No. 224, and of stanzas vi., viii., ix., xi. altered, and beginning, "O God! how many thankful songs," as No. 168, in Holy Song, 1869. Another tr. is:—-"Who is so full of tenderness," of stanza viii. as stanza iv. of No. 1075 in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 537). v. Ich steh an deiner Krippen bier. Christmas. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 105, in 15 stanzas of 7 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 9, and Bachmann's ed., No. 45; and in the Berlin Geistliche LiederSchatz, ed. 1863, No. 167. A beautiful hymn, in which the poet puts himself in the place of the shepherds and the wise men visiting Bethlehem; and in praise and adoration tenders his devotion, his love and his all, to the Infant Saviour in the manger. Translated as:— My faith Thy lowly bed beholds. A translation of stanzas i., iv., vii., xv., by A. T. Russell, as No. 57 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Other trs. are:— (1) "I stand beside Thy manger-bed," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 38. (2) "Now at the manger here I stand," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 32. vi. Ich weiss dass mein Erlöser lebt. Easter. Founded on Job xix. 25-27. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Zehende Dutzet, 1667, No. 119, in 9 stanzas of 7 lines; repeated in Wackernagel's ed., 1843, No. 118 (1874, No. 123); in Bachmann's ed., No. 119; and in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. ed. 1863, No. 301. Translated as:— I know that my Redeemer lives, In this my faith is fast. A full and spirited translation by J. Oxenford, in Lays of the Sanctuary, 1859, p. 122. His translations of stanzas i., iii., vii.-ix., were included, altered, as No. 779 in Kennedy, 1863. Another tr. is:— "I know that my Redeemer lives, This hope," &c, by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 78. vii. Ich weiss, mein Gott, dass all mein Thun. Supplication. A prayer for success in all Christian works and purpose; founded on Jeremiah x. 23, and Acts v. 38, 39. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 332, in 18 stanzas of 5 lines. In Wackernagel's ed., No. 40; Bachmann's ed., No. 71, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863. Translated as:— I know, my God, and I rejoice. A good translation of stanzas i.-iii., viii., xi., ix., by Miss Winkworth, as No. 121 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Another translation is:— "My God! my works and all I do” by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 102. viii. Kommt, und lasst uns Christum ehren. Christmas. Founded on St. Luke ii. 15. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 56, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. Thence in Wackemagel's ed., No. 6; Bachmann's ed., No. 110; and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 43. Translated as:— 1. Come, unite in praise and singing. Omitting stanzas vi., vii., contributed by A. T. Russell to Maurice's Choral Hymnbook, 1861, No. 707. 2. Bring to Christ your best oblation. A full and good translation by P. Massie in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 96; repeated in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory and Reid's Praise Book, 1872. Other translations are:— (1) "Come, and let us Christ revere now," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 25. (2) "Come, and Christ the Lord be praising," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 24. ix. Lobet den Herren, alle die ihn fürchten. Morning. Included in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch 1653, No. 7, in 10 stanzas of 5 lines. In Wackernagel's ed., No. 100, and Bachmann's ed., No. 21, and in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. edition 1863, No. 1063. Translated as:— Praise God! revere Him! all ye men that fear Him! This is from the version in Bunsen's Allgemeine Gesangbücher, 1846, No. 167, stanza i. being from Gerhardt, and st. ii., iii., from "Lobet den Herren, denn er ist sehr freundlich" (q. v.); and appeared in the Dalston Hospital Hymnbook, 1848, No. 55, signed "A. G." Other translations are:— (1) "Our Lord be praising, All His glory raising," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 27. (2) "Praise ye Jehovah, all ye men who fear Him," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 279. x. Micht so traurig, nicht so sehr. Christian Contentment. In the 3rd edition, 1648, of Crüger's Praxis, No. 251, in 15 stanzas of 6 1., repeated in Wackernagel's ed., No. 53; Bachmann's ed., No. 16, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 851. It is founded on Ps. cxvi. 7; Ps. xlii. 6-12; 1 Tim. vi. 6. Translated as:— Ah! grieve not so, nor so lament. A free translation by Mrs. Findlater, of stanzas i., ii., vii.-x., xiii., xv., in the 1st Ser., 1854, of the Hymns from the Land of Luther, p. 48 (1884, p. 50). Repeated, abridged, in Holy Song, 1869, and Dale's English Hymnbook, 1875. Other translations are:- (l) "Why this sad and mournful guise," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 85. (2) "Not so darkly, not so deep," by Miss Warner, 1858 (1861, p. 58). (3) “0 my soul, why dost thou grieve," by J. Kelly, 1867. xi. Nun lasst uns gehn und treten. New Year. Included in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 106, in 15 st. of 4 1. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 12; Bachmann's ed., No. 24, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 200. Evidently written during the Thirty Years' War. Translated as:— In pray'r your voices raise ye. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 45. From this, 8 st. are included as No. 48 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Other translations are:— (1) "Now let each humble Creature," in the Supplement to German Psalter, ed. 1765, p. 4, and Select Hymns from German Psalter, Tranquebar, 1754. p. 7. In the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789, No. 507 (1849, No. 1106), greatly altered, and beginning, “Year after year commenceth." (2) "0 come with prayer and singing," by R. Massie in the British Herald , Jan., 1865, p. 8. (3) “Christians all, with one accord," by E. Massie, 1867, p. 168. (4) "With notes of joy and songs of praise," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 24. xii. Schaut! Schaut! was ist für Wunder dar? Christmas. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 55, in 18 stanzas of 4 1. Thence in Wackernagel’s ed., No. 4; Bachmann's ed., No. 109. Translated as:— Behold! Behold! what wonders here. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 14. From this, 12 st. were included in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, as Nos. 25, 26: No. 26 beginning with the translation of st. xiii., "It is a time of joy today." xiii. Warum willt du draussen stehen. Advent. Suggested by Gen. xxiv. 31. Appeared in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 78, in 9 stanzas of 8 lines; viz., stanzas i.—vii., xi., xii., of the full form; st. viii.-x. being added in Ebeling's Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 50. The full text, in 12 stanzas, is also in Wackernagel's ed., No. 2; Bachmann's ed., No. 23, and Geistliche Lieder S., 1851, No. 20. Translated as:— Wherefore dost Thou longer tarry. A good translation, omitting st. viii.-x., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyrica Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 6. In her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 153, the translations of st. iii., v., xi., are omitted. Other trs. are:- (l) “Wherefore dost Thou, blest of God," by R. Massie, in Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 90. (2) “Why, without, then, art Thou staying," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 5. xiv. Was alle Weisheit in der Welt. Trinity Sunday. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 212, in 8 stanzas of 9 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 1, and Bachmann's ed., No, 59, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 50. Translated as:— Scarce tongue can speak, ne'er human ken. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 1, repeated as No. 111 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Another translation is:—"The mystery hidden from the eyes," by R. Massie, in Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 87. xv. Was Gott gefällt, mein frommes Kind. Resignation. This beautiful hymn, on resignation to “what pleases God," first appeared in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 290, in 20 stanzas of 5 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 60; Bachmann's ed., No. 37, and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 723. Translated as:—- What God decrees, child of His love. A good translation of stanzas i., ii., v., vi., viii., xii., xv., xviii., xx., by Mrs. Findlater, in the 3rd Ser., 1858, of the Hymns from the Land of Luther, p. 49 (1884, p. 170). Included, in full, in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860, No. 171; and abridged in Christian Hymns, Adelaide, 1872, and beginning, "What God decrees, take patiently," in Kennedy, 1863, No. 1344. Other translations are:— (1) "What pleaseth God with joy receive," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 94. (2) “What pleases God, 0 pious soul," by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 193, (3) ”What pleaseth God, my faithful child," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 189. xvi. Wie schőn ists doch, Herr Jesu Christ. For Married Persons. Founded on Ps. cxxviii. First published in Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Vierte Dutzet, 1666, No. 38, in 8 st. of 12 1. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., 1843, No. 108 (1874, No. 109); Bachmann's ed., No. 105, and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen S., 1851, No. 680. Translated as:— Oh, Jesus Christ! how bright and fair. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 307, repeated, altered, and omitting st. iii.—v., in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, No. 339. II. Hymns not in English common use: xvii. Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt. Good Friday. On St. John iii. 16. In Crüger's Praxis, 1661, No. 372, in 17 stanzas. Translated as, "Be of good cheer in all your wants,” by P. H. Molther, of stanza 16, as No. 181 in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789 (1886, No. 217). xviii. Auf, auf, mein Herz mit Freuden. Easter. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 141, in 9 stanzas. The translations are:-- (1) "Up! Up! my heart with gladness, See," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 71. (2) "Up, up, my heart, with gladness; Receive," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 228. xix. Du bist zwar mein und bleibest mein. For the Bereaved. A beautiful hymn of consolation for parents on the loss of a son. Written on the death of Constantin Andreas, younger son of Johannes Berkov, pastor of St. Mary's Church, Berlin, and first printed as one of the "Dulcia amicorum solatia" at the end of the funeral sermon by Georg Lilius, Berlin, 1650. Included in Ebeline's ed. of Gerhardt's Geistliche Andachten Sechste Dutzet, Berlin, 1667, No. 72, in 12 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "Thou'rt mine, yes, still thou art mine own”, by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 123. (2) "Yes, thou art mine, still mine, my son," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1861, p. 8, and his Remains, 1869, p. 249. (3) "Mine art thou still, and mine shalt be," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 333. (4) "Thou art mine own, art still mine own," by Dr. J. Guthrie, 1869, p. 100. xx. Du, meine Seele, singe. Ps. cxlvi. In the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, Berlin, 1653, No. 183, in 10 stanzas. Translated as, “O come, my soul, with singing," by Miss Burlingham, in the British Herald, Jannary, 1866, p. 207, and as No. 423 in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxi. Gieb dich zufrieden, und sei stille. Cross and Consolation—-Ps. xxxvii. 7. In Ebeling Erstes Dutzet, 1666, No. 11, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) “Be thou content: be still before," by Miss Winkworth, 1855, p. 156, and in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860, No. 269. (2) “Be thou contented! aye relying," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 202. (3) “Tranquilly lead thee, peace possessing," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 246. xxii. Hőr an! mein Herz, die sieben Wort. Passiontide. On the Seven Words from the Cross. Founded on the hymn noted under Bőschenstein, J. (q.v.). In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 137, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) “Come now, my soul, thy thoughts engage," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 309). (2) "Seven times the Saviour spake my heart," by R. Massie, in the British Herald, Sept., 1865, p. 133. (3) "My heart! the seven words hear now," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 63. xxiii. Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn. Resignation. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 249, in 12 st. Translated as: (1) "I into God's own heart and mind," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 219. (2) "To God's all-gracious heart and mind”, by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 213, repeated in Statham's Collection, Edinburgh, 1869 and 1870. xxiv. 0 Jesu Christ! dein Kripplein ist. Christmas. At the Manger of Bethlehem. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 101, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) Be not dismay'd—-in time of need" (st. xi.) in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789, No. 236. (2) "O blessed Jesus! This," by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p, 18. (3) "O Jesus Christ! Thy cradle is," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 41. (4) "Thy manger is my paradise," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 26. xxv. Voller Wunder, voller Kunst. Holy Matrimony. In Ebeling Vierte Dutzet, 1666, No. 40, in 17 st. Often used in Germany at marriages on the way to church. Translated as: (1) "Full of wonder, full of skill," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 215). (2) "Full of wonder, full of skill," in Mrs. Stanley Carr's translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt, ed. 1856, p. 52. (3) "Full of wonder, full of art," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 302. (4) "Full of wonder, full of art," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 215. xxvi. Warum machet solche Schmerzen. New Year. On St. Luke ii. 21. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 97, in 4 stanzas. Bunsen, in his Versuch, 1833, No. 120, gives st. iii., iv. altered to "Freut euch, Sünder, allerwegen." Tr. as: (1) "Mortals, who have God offended," by Miss Cox, 1841, p. 21, from Bunsen. (2) "Why should they such pain e'er give Thee," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 43. xxvii. Weg, mein Herz, mit den Gedanken. Lent. On St. Luke xv. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 36, in 12 stanzas. Translated as: (1) "Let not such a thought e'er pain thee," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 83. (2) "Hence, my heart, with such a thought," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 210. Besides the above, a considerable number of other hymns by Gerhardt have been translated by Mr. Kelly, and a few by Dr. Mills, Miss Manington, and others. The limits of our space forbid detailed notes on these versions. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================= Gerhardt, Paulus, pp. 409, ii., 1565, i. The most recent edition of Gerhardt's hymns is in vol. iii. of the Fischer-Tümpel Deutsche evangelische Kirchenlied des Siebzehnten Jahr-hunderts, 1906, Nos. 389-495. In fixing the text the compilers have been enabled to use the recently discovered 1647, 1653 and 1657 Berlin editions of Cruger's Praxis Pietatis Melica. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Robert Lowry

1826 - 1899 Person Name: Robert Lowry Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "NORTH ISLAND" in The Cyber Hymnal Robert Lowry was born in Philadelphia, March 12, 1826. His fondness for music was exhibited in his earliest years. As a child he amused himself with the various musical instruments that came into his hands. At the age of seventeen he joined the First Baptist Church of Philadelphia, and soon became an active worker in the Sunday-school as teacher and chorister. At the age of twenty-two he gave himself to the work of the ministry, and entered upon a course of study at the University of Lewisburg, Pa. At the age of twenty-eight he was graduated with the highest honors of his class. In the same year of his graduation, he entered upon the work of the ministry. He served as pastor at West Chester, Pa., 1851-1858; in New York City, 1859-1861; in Brooklyn, 1861-1869; in Lewisburg, Pa., 1869-1875. While pastor at Lewisburg, he was also professor of belles lettres in the University, and received the honorary degree of D. D. in 1875. He then went to Plainfield, N. J., where he became pastor of Park Avenue Church. In each of these fields his work was crowned with marked success. Dr. Lowry was a man of rare administrative ability, a most excellent preacher, a thorough Bible student, and whether in the pulpit or upon the platform, always a brilliant and interesting speaker. He was of a genial and pleasing disposition, and a high sense of humor was one of his most striking characteristics. Very few men had greater ability in painting pictures from the imagination. He could thrill an audience with his vivid descriptions, inspiring others with the same thoughts that inspired him. His melodies are sung in every civilized land, and many of his hymns have been translated into foreign tongues. While preaching the Gospel, in which he found great joy, was his life-work, music and hymnology were favorite studies, but were always a side issue, a recreation. In the year 1880, he took a rest of four years, visiting Europe. In 1885 he felt that he needed more rest, and resigned his pastorate at Plainfield, and visited in the South and West, also spending some time in Mexico. He returned, much improved in health, and again took up his work in Plainfield. On the death of Wm. B. Bradbury, Messrs. Biglow & Main, successors to Mr. Bradbury in the publishing business, selected Dr. Lowry for editor of their Sunday-school book, Bright Jewels, which was a great success. Subsequently Dr. W. Doane was associated with him in the issue of the Sunday-school song book, Pure Gold, the sales of which exceeded a million copies. Then came Royal Diadem, Welcome Tidings, Brightest and Best, Glad Refrain, Good as Gold, Joyful Lays, Fountain of Song, Bright Array, Temple Anthems, and numerous other volumes. The good quality of their books did much to stimulate the cause of sacred song in this country. When he saw that the obligations of musical editorship were laid upon him, he began the study of music in earnest, and sought the best musical text-books and works on the highest forms of musical composition. He possessed one of the finest musical libraries in the country. It abounded in works on the philosophy and science of musical sounds. He also had some musical works in his possession that were over one hundred and fifty years old. One of his labors of love some years ago was an attempt to reduce music to a mathematical basis. On the established fact that Middle C has two hundred and fifty-six vibrations per second, he prepared a scale and went to work on the rule of three. After infinite calculation and repeated experiments, he carried it far enough to discover that it would not work. A reporter once asked him what was his method of composition — "Do you write the words to fit the music, or the music to fit the words?" His reply was, "I have no method. Sometimes the music comes and the words follow, fitted insensibly to the melody. I watch my moods, and when anything good strikes me, whether words or music, and no matter where I am, at home or on the street, I jot it down. Often the margin of a newspaper or the back of an envelope serves as a notebook. My brain is a sort of spinning machine, I think, for there is music running through it all the time. I do not pick out my music on the keys of an instrument. The tunes of nearly all the hymns I have written have been completed on paper before I tried them on the organ. Frequently the words of the hymn and the music have been written at the same time." The Doctor frequently said that he regarded "Weeping Will Not Save Me" as the best and most evangelistic hymn he ever wrote. The following are some of his most popular and sweetest gospel melodies: "Shall We Gather at the River?," "One More Day's Work for Jesus," "Where is My Wandering Boy To-night?," "I Need Thee Every Hour," "The Mistakes of My Life," "How Can I Keep from Singing?," "All the Way My Saviour Leads Me," "Saviour, Thy Dying Love," "We're Marching to Zion," etc. "Shall We Gather at the River?" is perhaps, without question, the most widely popular of all his songs. Of this Mr. Lowry said: "It is brass band music, has a march movement, and for that reason has become popular, though for myself I do not think much of it." Yet he tells us how, on several occasions, he had been deeply moved by the singing of that hymn, "Going from Harrisburg to Lewisburg once I got into a car filled with half-drunken lumbermen. Suddenly one of them struck up, "Shall We Gather at the River?" and they sang it over and over again, repeating the chorus in a wild, boisterous way. I did not think so much of the music then as I listened to those singers, but I did think that perhaps the spirit of the hymn, the words so flippantly uttered, might somehow survive and be carried forward into the lives of those careless men, and ultimately lift them upward to the realization of the hope expressed in my hymn." "A different appreciation of it was evinced during the Robert Raikes' Centennial. I was in London, and had gone to meeting in the Old Bailey to see some of the most famous Sunday-school workers in the world. They were present from Europe, Asia, and America. I sat in a rear seat alone. After there had been a number of addresses delivered in various languages, I was preparing to leave, when the chairman of the meeting announced that the author of "Shall We Gather at the River?" was present, and I was requested by name to come forward. Men applauded and women waved their handkerchiefs as I went to the platform. It was a tribute to the hymn; but I felt, when it was over, that, after all, I had perhaps done some little good in the world, and I felt more than ever content to die when God called." On Children's Day in Brooklyn, in 1865, this song was sung by over forty thousand voices. While Dr. Lowry said, "I would rather preach a gospel sermon to an appreciative, receptive congregation than write a hymn," yet in spite of his preferences, his hymns have gone on and on, translated into many languages, preaching and comforting thousands upon thousands of souls, furnishing them expression for their deepest feelings of praise and gratitude to God for His goodness to the children of men. What he had thought in his inmost soul has become a part of the emotions of the whole Christian world. We are all his debtors. Rev. Robert Lowry, D. D., died at his residence in Plainfield, K J., November 25, 1899. Dead, yet he lives and his sermons in gospel song are still heard and are doing good. Dr. Lowry was a great and good man, and his life, well spent, is highly worthy of a place among the world's greatest gospel song and hymn writers. -- Biography of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers ------- Lowry, Robert, D.D., son of Crozier Lowry, was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1826, and educated at Lewisburg University. Having received ordination as a Baptist Minister, his first charge was at West Chester, Pennsylvania. From thence he passed to New York City, and then to Brooklyn, N. Y. In 1876 he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric in his University. On resigning his Professorship he undertook the charge of the 2nd Baptist Church, New Jersey. Dr. Lowry has been associated with some of the most popular Sunday School hymn-books published in the States, including Happy Voices, 1865; Chapel Melodies, 1868; Bright Jewels, 1869; Pure Gold, 1871; Royal Diadem, 1873; Tidal Wave, 1874; Fountain of Song1877; Welcome Tidings, 1877, &c. Of Dr. Lowry's hymns those which have attained the widest circulation are:— 1. Jerusalem, for ever bright. Heaven. Appeared in the American Tract Society's Happy Voices, 1865, with music by the author. 2. Low in the grave He lay. Resurrection of Christ. Written in 1874 and published in Brightest and Best, 1875. 3. Marching on, marching on. Sunday School Battle Song. Appeared, with music by the author, in Happy Voices, 1865. 4. My home is in heaven, my rest is not here. In Happy Voices, 1865, with music by the author. 5. My life flows on in endless song. Joy in God. In Bright Jewels, 1869; the Royal Diadem, 1873, and others in America and Great Britain, with music by the author. 6. One more day's work for Jesus. Work for Christ. Published, with music by the author, in Bright Jewels, 1869. 7. Shall we gather at the river? Mutual recognition in the Hereafter. The origin of this hymn is thus set forth in E. W. Long's Illustrated History of Hymns and their Authors, Philadelphia, 1876, p. 64:— ”On a very hot summer day, in 1864, a pastor was seated in his parlour in Brooklyn, N. Y. It was a time when an epidemic was sweeping through the city, and draping many persons and dwellings in mourning. All around friends and acquaintances were passing away to the spirit land in large numbers. The question began to arise in the heart, with unusual emphasis, ‘Shall we meet again? We are parting at the river of death, shall we meet at the river of life?' ‘Seating myself at the organ,’ says he, ‘simply to give vent to the pent up emotions of the heart, the words and music of the hymn began to flow out, as if by inspiration:— ‘Shall we gather at the river, Where bright angel feet have trod?’" In 1865 the hymn and music were given in Happy Voices, No. 220, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines and a chorus. The hymn has since passed into a great number of hymnals in Great Britain and America. 8. Take the wings of the morning; speed quickly thy flight. Exhortation to Repentance. Written for, and published with music by the author in, the Royal Diadem, 1873. 9. Weeping will not save me. Salvation through Faith. Published in the Chapel Melodies, 1868. 10. What can wash away my stain? Precious Blood of Jesus. Given in the Welcome Tidings, 1877, with music by the author. 11. Where is my wandering boy tonight! The absent Child. In the Fountain of Song, 1877, together with music by the author. Most of these hymns are given in Mr. I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos, Pts. i., ii. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Ira David Sankey

1840 - 1908 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "MORELOS" in The Cyber Hymnal Sankey, Ira David, was born in Edinburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1840, of Methodist parents. About 1856 he removed with his parents to New Castle, Pennsylvania, where he became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Four years afterwards he became the Superintendent of a large Sunday School in which he commenced his career of singing sacred songs and solos. Mr. Moody met with him and heard him sing at the International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Association, at Indianapolis, and through Mr. Moody's persuasion he joined him in his work at Chicago. After some two or three years' work in Chicago, they sailed for England on June 7, 1872, and held their first meeting at York a short time afterwards, only eight persons being present. Their subsequent work in Great Britain and America is well known. Mr. Sankey's special duty was the singing of sacred songs and solos at religious gatherings, a practice which was in use in America for some time before he adopted it. His volume of Sacred Songs and Solos is a compilation from various sources, mainly American and mostly in use before. Although known as Sankey and Moody’s Songs, only one song, "Home at last, thy labour done" is by Mr. Sankey, and not one is by Mr. Moody. Mr. Sankey supplied several of the melodies. The English edition of the Sacred Songs & Solos has had an enormous sale; and the work as a whole is very popular for Home Mission services. The Songs have been translated into several languages. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) Pseudonymns: Harry S. Low­er Rian A. Dykes ==================== Sankey, I. D., p. 994, i. During the past fifteen years Mr. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos have had a very large sale, which has justified him in increasing the number of songs and hymns, including " New Hymns and Solos," to 1200. In 1906 he published My Life and Sacred Songs (London : Morgan & Scott). In addition to the "Story of his Own Life," the work contains an account of the most popular of his solos, with interesting reminiscences of the spiritual awakening of many who were influenced through his singing of them in public. In this respect it corresponds in some measure with G. J. Stevenson's Methodist Hymn Book, &c, 1883 (p. 1094, i.). It is an addition to the Sacred Songs and Solos, which will be held in esteem by many. In addition to his hymn, noted on p. 994, ii., Mr. Sankey gives details of the following:— 1. Out of the shadow-land into the sunshine. [Heaven Anticipated.] Mr. Sankey's account of this hymn is:— "I wrote this hymn specially for the memorial service held for Mr. Moody in Carnegie Hall, where 1 also sang it as a solo. It is the last sacred song of which I wrote both the words and music. The idea was suggested by Mr. Moody's last words, 'Earth recedes; heaven opens before me . . . God is calling me, and I must go.' On account of its peculiar association with my fellow-labourer in the Gospel for so many years, the words are here given in full." The hymn follows on p. 185, in 3 stanzas of 4 lines and a chorus. 2. Rejoice! Rejoice! our King is coming, [Advent.] Mr. Sankey writes concerning this hymn:— "During one of my trips to Great Britain on the SS. City of Rome a storm raged on the sea. The wind was howling through the rigging, and waves like mountains of foam were breaking over the bow of the vessel. A great fear had fallen upon the passengers. When the storm was at its worst, we all thought we might soon go to the bottom of the sea. The conviction came to me that the Lord would be with us iu the trying hour, and sitting down in the reading room, I composed this hymn. Before reaching England the tune had formed itself in my mind, and on arriving in London I wrote it out, and had it published in Sacred Songs and Solos, where it is No. 524 in the edition. of 1888. From Mr. Sankey's autobiographical sketch we gather that he was born at Edinburgh, in Western Pennsylvania, Aug. 28, 1840, joined Mr. Moody in 1871, and visited England for the first time in 1873. The original of the Sacred Songs, &c, of 23 pieces only, was offered as a gift to the London publishers of P. Phillips's Hallowed Song, and declined by them. It was subsequently accepted by Mr. K. O. Morgan, of Morgan & Scott, and is now a volume of 1200 hymns. From a return kindly sent us by Messrs. Morgan & Scott, we find that the various issues of the Sacred Songs and Solos were:— In 1873, 24 pp.; 1874, 72 pp. ; 1876, 153 hymns; 1877, 271 hymns; 1881, 441 hymns; 1888, 750 hymns; 1903, 1200 hymns. In addition, The Christian Choir, which is generally associated with the Sacred Songs and Solos, was issued in 1884 with 75 hymns, and in 1896 with 281. The New Hymns & Solos, by the same firm, were published in 1888. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

J. H. Fillmore

1849 - 1936 Person Name: James Henry Fillmore, Sr. Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "MAIDUGURI" in The Cyber Hymnal James Henry Fillmore USA 1849-1936. Born at Cincinnati, OH, he helped support his family by running his father's singing school. He married Annie Eliza McKrell in 1880, and they had five children. After his father's death he and his brothers, Charles and Frederick, founded the Fillmore Brothers Music House in Cincinnati, specializing in publishing religious music. He was also an author, composer, and editor of music, composing hymn tunes, anthems, and cantatas, as well as publishing 20+ Christian songbooks and hymnals. He issued a monthly periodical “The music messsenger”, typically putting in his own hymns before publishing them in hymnbooks. Jessie Brown Pounds, also a hymnist, contributed song lyrics to the Fillmore Music House for 30 years, and many tunes were composed for her lyrics. He was instrumental in the prohibition and temperance efforts of the day. His wife died in 1913, and he took a world tour trip with single daughter, Fred (a church singer), in the early 1920s. He died in Cincinnati. His son, Henry, became a bandmaster/composer. John Perry

Jacques Berthier

1923 - 1994 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "VENI SANCTE SPIRITUS (Berthier)" Jacques Berthier (b. Auxerre, Burgundy, June 27, 1923; d. June 27, 1994) A son of musical parents, Berthier studied music at the Ecole Cesar Franck in Paris. From 1961 until his death he served as organist at St. Ignace Church, Paris. Although his published works include numerous compositions for organ, voice, and instruments, Berthier is best known as the composer of service music for the Taizé community near Cluny, Burgundy. Influenced by the French liturgist and church musician Joseph Gelineau, Berthier began writing songs for equal voices in 1955 for the services of the then nascent community of twenty brothers at Taizé. As the Taizé community grew, Berthier continued to compose most of the mini-hymns, canons, and various associated instrumental arrangements, which are now universally known as the Taizé repertoire. In the past two decades this repertoire has become widely used in North American church music in both Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. Bert Polman

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