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Scripture:2 Corinthians 12:2-10
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William Cowper

1731 - 1800 Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:10 Author of "Love seen in trials" in Laudes Domini William Cowper (pronounced "Cooper"; b. Berkampstead, Hertfordshire, England, 1731; d. East Dereham, Norfolk, England, 1800) is regarded as one of the best early Romantic poets. To biographers he is also known as "mad Cowper." His literary talents produced some of the finest English hymn texts, but his chronic depression accounts for the somber tone of many of those texts. Educated to become an attorney, Cowper was called to the bar in 1754 but never practiced law. In 1763 he had the opportunity to become a clerk for the House of Lords, but the dread of the required public examination triggered his tendency to depression, and he attempted suicide. His subsequent hospitalization and friendship with Morley and Mary Unwin provided emotional stability, but the periods of severe depression returned. His depression was deepened by a religious bent, which often stressed the wrath of God, and at times Cowper felt that God had predestined him to damnation. For the last two decades of his life Cowper lived in Olney, where John Newton became his pastor. There he assisted Newton in his pastoral duties, and the two collaborated on the important hymn collection Olney Hymns (1779), to which Cowper contributed sixty-eight hymn texts. Bert Polman ============ Cowper, William, the poet. The leading events in the life of Cowper are: born in his father's rectory, Berkhampstead, Nov. 26, 1731; educated at Westminster; called to the Bar, 1754; madness, 1763; residence at Huntingdon, 1765; removal to Olney, 1768; to Weston, 1786; to East Dereham, 1795; death there, April 25, 1800. The simple life of Cowper, marked chiefly by its innocent recreations and tender friendships, was in reality a tragedy. His mother, whom he commemorated in the exquisite "Lines on her picture," a vivid delineation of his childhood, written in his 60th year, died when he was six years old. At his first school he was profoundly wretched, but happier at Westminster; excelling at cricket and football, and numbering Warren Hastings, Colman, and the future model of his versification. Churchill, among his contemporaries or friends. Destined for the Bar, he was articled to a solicitor, along with Thurlow. During this period he fell in love with his cousin, Theodora Cowper, sister to Lady Hesketh, and wrote love poems to her. The marriage was forbidden by her father, but she never forgot him, and in after years secretly aided his necessities. Fits of melancholy, from which he had suffered in school days, began to increase, as he entered on life, much straitened in means after his father's death. But on the whole, it is the playful, humorous side of him that is most prominent in the nine years after his call to the Bar; spent in the society of Colman, Bonnell Thornton, and Lloyd, and in writing satires for The Connoisseur and St. James's Chronicle and halfpenny ballads. Then came the awful calamity, which destroyed all hopes of distinction, and made him a sedentary invalid, dependent on his friends. He had been nominated to the Clerkship of the Journals of the House of Lords, but the dread of appearing before them to show his fitness for the appointment overthrew his reason. He attempted his life with "laudanum, knife and cord,"—-in the third attempt nearly succeeding. The dark delusion of his life now first showed itself—a belief in his reprobation by God. But for the present, under the wise and Christian treatment of Dr. Cotton (q. v.) at St. Albans, it passed away; and the eight years that followed, of which the two first were spent at Huntingdon (where he formed his lifelong friendship with Mrs. Unwin), and the remainder at Olney in active piety among the poor, and enthusiastic devotions under the guidance of John Newton (q. v.), were full of the realisation of God's favour, and the happiest, most lucid period of his life. But the tension of long religious exercises, the nervous excitement of leading at prayer meetings, and the extreme despondence (far more than the Calvinism) of Newton, could scarcely have been a healthy atmosphere for a shy, sensitive spirit, that needed most of all the joyous sunlight of Christianity. A year after his brother's death, madness returned. Under the conviction that it was the command of God, he attempted suicide; and he then settled down into a belief in stark contradiction to his Calvinistic creed, "that the Lord, after having renewed him in holiness, had doomed him to everlasting perdition" (Southey). In its darkest form his affliction lasted sixteen months, during which he chiefly resided in J. Newton's house, patiently tended by him and by his devoted nurse, Mrs. Unwin. Gradually he became interested in carpentering, gardening, glazing, and the tendance of some tame hares and other playmates. At the close of 1780, Mrs. Unwin suggested to him some serious poetical work; and the occupation proved so congenial, that his first volume was published in 1782. To a gay episode in 1783 (his fascination by the wit of Lady Austen) his greatest poem, The Task, and also John Gilpin were owing. His other principal work was his Homer, published in 1791. The dark cloud had greatly lifted from his life when Lady Hesketh's care accomplished his removal to Weston (1786): but the loss of his dear friend William Unwin lowered it again for some months. The five years' illness of Mrs. Unwin, during which his nurse of old became his tenderly-watched patient, deepened the darkness more and more. And her death (1796) brought “fixed despair," of which his last poem, The Castaway, is the terrible memorial. Perhaps no more beautiful sentence has been written of him, than the testimony of one, who saw him after death, that with the "composure and calmness" of the face there “mingled, as it were, a holy surprise." Cowper's poetry marks the dawn of the return from the conventionality of Pope to natural expression, and the study of quiet nature. His ambition was higher than this, to be the Bard of Christianity. His great poems show no trace of his monomania, and are full of healthy piety. His fame as a poet is less than as a letter-writer: the charm of his letters is unsurpassed. Though the most considerable poet, who has written hymns, he has contributed little to the development of their structure, adopting the traditional modes of his time and Newton's severe canons. The spiritual ideas of the hymns are identical with Newton's: their highest note is peace and thankful contemplation, rather than joy: more than half of them are full of trustful or reassuring faith: ten of them are either submissive (44), self-reproachful (17, 42, 43), full of sad yearning (1, 34), questioning (9), or dark spiritual conflict (38-40). The specialty of Cowper's handling is a greater plaintiveness, tenderness, and refinement. A study of these hymns as they stood originally under the classified heads of the Olney Hymns, 1779, which in some cases probably indicate the aim of Cowper as well as the ultimate arrangement of the book by Newton, shows that one or two hymns were more the history of his conversion, than transcripts of present feelings; and the study of Newton's hymns in the same volume, full of heavy indictment against the sins of his own regenerate life, brings out the peculiar danger of his friendship to the poet: it tends also to modify considerably the conclusions of Southey as to the signs of incipient madness in Cowper's maddest hymns. Cowper's best hymns are given in The Book of Praise by Lord Selborne. Two may be selected from them; the exquisitely tender "Hark! my soul, it is the Lord" (q. v.), and "Oh, for a closer walk with God" (q. v.). Anyone who knows Mrs. Browning's noble lines on Cowper's grave will find even a deeper beauty in the latter, which is a purely English hymn of perfect structure and streamlike cadence, by connecting its sadness and its aspiration not only with the “discord on the music" and the "darkness on the glory," but the rapture of his heavenly waking beneath the "pathetic eyes” of Christ. Authorities. Lives, by Hayley; Grimshaw; Southey; Professor Goldwin Smith; Mr. Benham (attached to Globe Edition); Life of Newton, by Rev. Josiah Bull; and the Olney Hymns. The numbers of the hymns quoted refer to the Olney Hymns. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Cowper, W. , p. 265, i. Other hymns are:— 1. Holy Lord God, I love Thy truth. Hatred of Sin. 2. I was a grovelling creature once. Hope and Confidence. 3. No strength of nature can suffice. Obedience through love. 4. The Lord receives His highest praise. Faith. 5. The saints should never be dismayed. Providence. All these hymns appeared in the Olney Hymns, 1779. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ===================== Cowper, W., p. 265, i. Prof. John E. B. Mayor, of Cambridge, contributed some letters by Cowper, hitherto unpublished, together with notes thereon, to Notes and Queries, July 2 to Sept. 24, 1904. These letters are dated from Huntingdon, where he spent two years after leaving St. Alban's (see p. 265, i.), and Olney. The first is dated "Huntingdon, June 24, 1765," and the last "From Olney, July 14, 1772." They together with extracts from other letters by J. Newton (dated respectively Aug. 8, 1772, Nov. 4, 1772), two quotations without date, followed by the last in the N. & Q. series, Aug. 1773, are of intense interest to all students of Cowper, and especially to those who have given attention to the religious side of the poet's life, with its faint lights and deep and awful shadows. From the hymnological standpoint the additional information which we gather is not important, except concerning the hymns "0 for a closer walk with God," "God moves in a mysterious way," "Tis my happiness below," and "Hear what God, the Lord, hath spoken." Concerning the last three, their position in the manuscripts, and the date of the last from J. Newton in the above order, "Aug. 1773," is conclusive proof against the common belief that "God moves in a mysterious way" was written as the outpouring of Cowper's soul in gratitude for the frustration of his attempted suicide in October 1773. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Johann Ludwig Steiner

1688 - 1761 Person Name: Johann Ludwig Steiner (1688-1761) Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:8-9 Composer of "GOTT WILL'S MACHEN" in Church Hymnary (4th ed.)

D. B. Towner

1850 - 1919 Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:9-10 Composer of "MARVELOUS GRACE" in The Hymnal of The Evangelical United Brethren Church Towner, Daniel B. (Rome, Pennsylvania, 1850--1919). Attended grade school in Rome, Penn. when P.P. Bliss was teacher. Later majored in music, joined D.L. Moody, and in 1893 became head of the music department at Moody Bible Institute. Author of more than 2,000 songs. --Paul Milburn, DNAH Archives

G. W. Martin

1825 - 1881 Person Name: George William Martin Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:9-10 Composer of "LEOMINSTER" in Moravian Book of Worship George William Martin United Kingdom 1825-1881. Born in London, he became a chorister at St. Paul’s Cathedral under William Hawes, and also at Westminstwer Abbey at the coronation of Queen Victoria. He became a professor of music at the Normal College for Army Schoolmasters, and was from 1845-1853 resident music-master at St. John’s Training College, Battersea, and was the first organist of Christ Church, Battersea in 1849. In 1860 he established the National Choral Society which he maintained for some years at Exeter Hall, having an admirable series of oratorio performances. He edited and published cheap editions of these and other works not readily available to the public. He organized a 1000-voice choir at the 300th anniversary of Shakespeare’s birth. He had an aptitude for training children and conducted the National Schools Choral Festival at the Crystal Palace in 1859. As a composer his genius was in directing madrigal and part song, and in 1845 his prize glee “Is she not beautiful?” was published. Due to intemperance he sank from a position that gave him notoriety in the elements of musical force in the metropolis. He composed tunes, canticles, and motets. He died destitute in a hospital at Wandsworth, London. No information found regarding family. John Perry

Arthur Sullivan

1842 - 1900 Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:9-10 Arranger of "LEOMINSTER" in Moravian Book of Worship Arthur Seymour Sullivan (b Lambeth, London. England. 1842; d. Westminster, London, 1900) was born of an Italian mother and an Irish father who was an army band­master and a professor of music. Sullivan entered the Chapel Royal as a chorister in 1854. He was elected as the first Mendelssohn scholar in 1856, when he began his studies at the Royal Academy of Music in London. He also studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1858-1861) and in 1866 was appointed professor of composition at the Royal Academy of Music. Early in his career Sullivan composed oratorios and music for some Shakespeare plays. However, he is best known for writing the music for lyrics by William S. Gilbert, which produced popular operettas such as H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), The Mikado (1884), and Yeomen of the Guard (1888). These operettas satirized the court and everyday life in Victorian times. Although he com­posed some anthems, in the area of church music Sullivan is best remembered for his hymn tunes, written between 1867 and 1874 and published in The Hymnary (1872) and Church Hymns (1874), both of which he edited. He contributed hymns to A Hymnal Chiefly from The Book of Praise (1867) and to the Presbyterian collection Psalms and Hymns for Divine Worship (1867). A complete collection of his hymns and arrangements was published posthumously as Hymn Tunes by Arthur Sullivan (1902). Sullivan steadfastly refused to grant permission to those who wished to make hymn tunes from the popular melodies in his operettas. Bert Polman

F. Venua

1788 - 1872 Person Name: F. M. A. Venua Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:9 Composer of "PARK STREET" in Laudes Domini Frederic Marc Antoine Venua; English composer Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1908 Born to an Ital­i­an fa­mi­ly in France, Ve­nua at­tend­ed the Pa­ris Con­ser­va­to­ry, and stu­died com­po­sition in Lon­don. He di­rect­ed and com­posed for the ball­et or­ches­tra at the King’s The­a­ter, and be­longed the Bri­tish Roy­al So­ci­e­ty of Mu­si­cians. He re­tired to Ex­e­ter in 1858. © The Cyber Hymnal™ (http://www.hymntime.com/tch/bio/v/e/n/u/venua_fma.htm">Frederick Marc Antoine Venua)

Robert Harkness

1880 - 1961 Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:9 Arranger of "[Jesus! What a Friend for sinners!]" in Hymns of Faith After attending a revival meeting by Reuben Torrey and Charles M. Alexander, Harkness became Alexander’s pianist. He came to Christ shortly thereafter (on a bicycle, he said), and made several round the world tours with Torrey and Alexander. Harkness was especially well known for his program The Music of the Cross, and as the author of correspondence courses in hymn playing. He wrote over 2,000 hymns and Gospel songs in his lifetime. (hymntime.com/tch)

Somerset Corry Lowry

1855 - 1932 Person Name: Somerset Corry Lowry (1855-1932) Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:7-10 Author of "Son of God, eternal Saviour" in Church Hymnary (4th ed.) Lowry, Somerset Corry, M.A., son of James Corry Lowry, Q.C., of Rockdale, Dungannon, Ireland, b. in 1855, and educated at Repton and Trin. Hall, Camb., B.A. 1877, M.A. 1880. Ordained in 1879 to the Curacy of Doncaster. Subsequently Vicar of North Holmwood, Surrey, 1891-1900, and of St. Augustin's, Bournemouth, from 1900. He has published The Work of the Holy Spirit, 1894; Convalescence, 1897; Lessons from the Passion, 1899, &c. His hymns include:— 1. Behold, Lord! how the nations rage, [In Time of War.] Written "For Use during the War between Russia and Japan," in 1904, and printed as a leaflet by Jarvis & Co., Bournemouth. 2. Lord, while afar our brothers fight. [In Time of War.] Written at Holmwood, Surrey, in 1899, after the reverse of Colenso, and extensively used during the S. African War. Given in the 1904 ed. of Hymns Ancient & Modern. 3. 0 Saviour, once again the ebbing year. [For a Memorial Service.] Written at Holmwood, in 1898, for Queen Victoria's annual Service in memory of the Prince Consort. Included in Hymns of the Christ. Centuries, 1903. 4. 0 Son of God, enthroned above. [Advent] Written at Holmwood, in 1892, and given in M. Woodward's Children's Service Book, 1897. 5. Pressing forward. [Processional.] Also in Woodward's Children's Service Book, 1897. Written at Bournemouth, in 1888. 6. Son of God, Eternal Saviour. [For Unity.] Written at Holmwood, in 1893 ; printed in Goodwill, Feb. 1894, and included in the 1904 ed. of Hymns Ancient & Modern. 7. We meet as we have never met before. [Burial.] Written for use after a Child's Funeral, Holmwood, 1892, and given in Woodward's Children's Service Book, 1897. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

William Penfro Rowlands

1860 - 1937 Person Name: William Penfro Rowlands (1860-1937) Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:7-10 Composer of "BLAENWERN" in Church Hymnary (4th ed.)

David Schubert

b. 1942 Person Name: David Arthur Schubert, 1942- Scripture: 2 Corinthians 12:8-11 Alterer of "O Jesus, Saviour, grow in me" in Together in Song

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