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Henry Thomas Smart

1813 - 1879 Person Name: Henry Smart Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "HEATHLANDS" in The Hymnal Henry Smart (b. Marylebone, London, England, 1813; d. Hampstead, London, 1879), a capable composer of church music who wrote some very fine hymn tunes (REGENT SQUARE, 354, is the best-known). Smart gave up a career in the legal profession for one in music. Although largely self taught, he became proficient in organ playing and composition, and he was a music teacher and critic. Organist in a number of London churches, including St. Luke's, Old Street (1844-1864), and St. Pancras (1864-1869), Smart was famous for his extemporiza­tions and for his accompaniment of congregational singing. He became completely blind at the age of fifty-two, but his remarkable memory enabled him to continue playing the organ. Fascinated by organs as a youth, Smart designed organs for impor­tant places such as St. Andrew Hall in Glasgow and the Town Hall in Leeds. He composed an opera, oratorios, part-songs, some instrumental music, and many hymn tunes, as well as a large number of works for organ and choir. He edited the Choralebook (1858), the English Presbyterian Psalms and Hymns for Divine Worship (1867), and the Scottish Presbyterian Hymnal (1875). Some of his hymn tunes were first published in Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861). Bert Polman

Thomas Haweis

1734 - 1820 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "From the cross uplifted high" in The Hymnal Thomas Haweis (b. Redruth, Cornwall, England, 1734; d. Bath, England, 1820) Initially apprenticed to a surgeon and pharmacist, Haweis decided to study for the ministry at Oxford and was ordained in the Church of England in 1757. He served as curate of St. Mary Magdalen Church, Oxford, but was removed by the bishop from that position because of his Methodist leanings. He also was an assistant to Martin Madan at Locke Hospital, London. In 1764 he became rector of All Saints Church in Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and later served as administrator at Trevecca College, Wales, a school founded by the Countess of Huntingdon, whom Haweis served as chaplain. After completing advanced studies at Cambridge, he published a Bible commentary and a volume on church history. Haweis was strongly interested in missions and helped to found the London Mission Society. His hymn texts and tunes were published in Carmino Christo, or Hymns to the Savior (1792, expanded 1808). Bert Polman ============================ Haweis, Thomas, LL.B., M.D., born at Truro, Cornwall, 1732. After practising for a time as a Physician, he entered Christ's College, Cambridge, where he graduated. Taking Holy Orders, he became Assistant Preacher to M. Madan at the Lock Hospital, London, and subsequently Rector of All Saints, Aldwincle, Northamptonshire. He was also Chaplain to Lady Huntingdon, and for several years officiated at her Chapel in Bath. He died at Bath, Feb. 11, 1820. He published several prose works, including A History of the Church, A Translation of the New Testament, and A Commentary on the Holy Bible. His hymns, a few of which are of more than ordinary merit, were published in his Carmina Christo; or, Hymns to the Saviour. Designed for the Use and Comfort of Those who worship the Lamb that was slain. Bath, S. Hayward, 1792 (139 hymns), enlarged. London, 1808 (256 hymns). In 1794, or sometime after, but before the enlarged edition was published, two hymns "For the Fast-day, Feb. 28, 1794," were added to the first edition. These were, "Big with events, another year," and "Still o'er the deep the cannon's roar." The most popular and widely used of his hymns are, "Behold the Lamb of God, Who bore," &c.; "Enthroned on high, Almighty Lord"; and “O Thou from Whom all goodness flows." The rest, all being from Carmina Christo, first edition 1792, are:— 1. Dark was the night and cold the ground. Gethsemane. 2. From the cross uplifted high. Christ in Glory. 3. Great Spirit, by Whose mighty power. Whitsuntide. 4. Submissive to Thy will, my God. Resignation. 5. The happy morn is come. Easter. 6. Thou Lamb of God, that on the tree. Good Friday. The hymn, "Thy Head, the crown of thorns that wears," in Stryker & Main's Church Praise Book, N. Y., 1882, begins with st. ii. of this hymn. 7. To Thee, my God and Saviour, My heart, &c. Praise for Redemption. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Benjamin Schmolck

1672 - 1737 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "What Our Father Does Is Well" in The Cyber Hymnal Schmolck, Benjamin, son of Martin Schmolck, or Schmolcke, Lutheran pastor at Brauchitschdorf (now Chrόstnik) near Liegnitz in Silesia (now Poland) was born at Brauchitschdorf, Dec. 21, 1672. He entered the Gymnasium at Lauban in 1688, and spent five years there. After his return home he preached for his father a sermon which so struck the patron of the living that he made Benjamin an allowance for three years to enable him to study theology. He matriculated, at Michaelmas, 1693, at the University of Leipzig, where he came under the influence of J. Olearius, J. B. Carpzov, and others, and throughout his life retained the character of their teaching, viz. a warm and living practical Christianity, but Churchly in tone and not Pietistic. In the autumn of 1697, after completing his studies at Leipzig (during his last year there he supported himself mainly by the proceeds of occasional poems written for wealthy citizens, for which he was also, crowned as a poet), he returned to Brauchitzchdorf to help his father, and, in 1701, was ordained as his assistant. On Feb. 12, 1702, he married Anna Rosina, daughter of Christoph Rehwald, merchant in Lauban and in the end of the same year was appointed diaconus of the Friedenskirche at Schweidnitz in Silesia. As the result of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia, the churches in the principality of Schweidnitz had been taken from the Lutherans, and for the whole district the Peace of Westphalia (1648) allowed only one church (and that only of timber and clay, without tower or bells), which the Lutherans had to build at Schweidnitz, outside the walls of the town; and the three clergy attached to this church had to minister to a population scattered over some thirty-six villages, and were moreover hampered by many restrictions, e.g. being unable to communicate a sick person without a permit from the local Roman Catholic priest. Here Schmolck remained till the close of his life, becoming in 1708 archidiaconus, in 1712 senior, and in 1714 pastor primarius and inspector. Probably as the result of his exhausting labours he had a stroke of paralysis on Laetare (Mid-Lent) Sunday, 1730, which for a time laid him aside altogether, and after which he never recovered the use of his right hand. For five years more he was still able to officiate, preaching for the last time on a Fastday in 1735. But two more strokes of paralysis followed, and then cataract came on, relieved for a time by a successful operation, but returning again incurably. For the last months of his life he was confined to bed, till the message of release came to him, on the anniversary of his wedding, Feb. 12, 1737. (Koch, v. 463; Bode, p. 144; Goedeke's Grundriss, vol. iii., 1887, p. 306; sketch prefixed to Ledderhose's edition of Schmolck's Geistliche Lieder, Halle, 1857, &c.) Schmolck was well known in his own district as a popular and useful preacher, a diligent pastor, and a man of wonderful tact and discretion. It was however his devotional books, and the original hymns therein contained, that brought him into wider popularity, and carried his name and fame all over Germany. Long lists of his works and of the various editions through which many of them passed are given by Koch, Bode and Goedehe. It is rather difficult to trace the hymns, as they are copied from one book of his into another, &c. Schmolck was the most popular hymnwriter of his time, and was hailed as the "Silesian Rist," as the "second Gerhardt," &c. Nor was he altogether unworthy of such praise. It is true that he did not possess the soaring genius of Gerhardt. Nor had he even Gerhardt's concise, simple style, but instead was too fond of high-sounding expressions, of plays upon words, of far-fetched but often recurring contrasts, and in general of straining after effect, especially in the pieces written in his later years. In fact he wrote a great deal too much, and latterly without proper attention to concentration or to proportion. Besides Cantatas, occasional pieces for weddings, funerals, &c, he is the author of some 900 hymns, properly so called. These were written for all sorts of occasions, and range over the whole field of churchly, family, and individual life. Naturally they are not all alike good; and those in his first three collections are decidedly the best. A deep and genuine personal religion, and a fervent love to the Saviour, inspire his best hymns; and as they are not simply thought out but felt, they come from the heart to the heart. The best of them are also written in a clear, flowing, forcible, natural, popular style, and abound in sententious sayings, easily to be remembered. Even of these many are, however, more suited for family use than for public worship. Nevertheless they very soon came into extensive use, not only in Silesia, but all over Germany. A number of Schmolck's hymns [that] have passed into English are:— i. Der beste Freund ist in dem Himmel. Love of Jesus. First published in his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1709, p. 100), in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "The best Friend." The translation in common use is:— A faithful friend is waiting yonder. This is a good translation, omitting stanza v., as No. 293, in Kennedy, 1863. ii. Die Woche geht zum Ende. Saturday Evening. In his Andächtige Hertze, 1714, p. 116, in 10 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "Evening Hymn," and appointed for Evening Prayer on Saturday. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1158. Translated as:— The week draws near its ending. This is a good translation of stanzas i., vi., vii., x., marked as by "A. G.," as No. 81 in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book 1848. Other trs. are: (1) “Though now the week is ending," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 107. (2) “The week at length is over," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 137. iii. Gott du hist selbst die Liehe. Holy Matrimony. Translated as:— O God, "Who all providest. This is a good translation, omitting stanza iii., by J. M. Sloan, as No. 312 in J. H. Wilson's Service of Praise, 1865. iv. Halleluja! Jesus lebt. Easter. In his Bochim und Elim, 1731, p. 67, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hallelujah! at the grave of Jesus." In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 296. Tr. as:— Hallelujah! Lo, He wakes. By E. Cronenwett, omitting st. iv., as No. 79 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal 1880. Another translation is: "Hallelujah! Jesus lives! Life, immortal life, He gives." This is a full and good translation, by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 486, repeated in the Treasury of Sacred Song, Kirkwall, n.d. v. Heute mir und Morgen dir. Funeral Hymn. In his Schmuck und Asche, 1717, p. 252, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Daily Dying". The tr. in common use is:— Today mine, tomorrow thine. This is a good and full translation, by Miss Warner, in her Hymns of the Church Militant, 1858, p. 260. vi. Je grösser Kreuz, je näher Himmel. Cross and Consolation. In his Andächtige Hertz, 1714, p. 273, in 9 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hymn of Cross and Consolation." By its sententiousness and its manifold illustrations of the power of the Cross it has been a favourite with many. Translated as:— 1. Greater the Cross, the nearer heaven. 2. The more the cross, the nearer heaven. Another translation is: "The heavier the cross, the nearer heaven," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 160. vii. Jesus soil die Losung sein. New Year. The translation in common use is:— Jesus shall the watchword he. Another translation is: "Jesu's name shall be our watchword," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. viii. Licht vom Licht, erleuchte mich. Sunday Morning. Translated as:— Light of Light, enlighten me. This is a very good tr. omitting stanza vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 66, and thence in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 17. Other translations are: (1) "Light of Light! illumine me," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 6. (2) "O thou blessed Light of Light," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 74. ix. Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht, Ach was wollt ich hessres haben. Love to Christ. Translated as:— I'll with Jesus never part. This is a translation of st. i., ii., iv., as stanzas iii.-v. of No. 378 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In the ed. of 1886, No. 452 (see p. 614, i.), the part from Schmolck begins, "He is mine and I am His" (the translation of stanza ii.). Another tr. is: "I'll not leave Jesus—-never, never," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 509. x. Mein Gott, ich weiss wohl dass ich sterbe. For the Dying. Translated as:— My God! I know that I must die, My mortal. Other trs. are: (1) "That I shall die full well 1 know," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 232). (2) "My God! I know full well that I must die," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 344. (3) "My God, I know that I must die; I know," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xi. Mein Jesus lebt! was soil ich sterben. Easter. Translated as:— My Saviour lives; I shall not perish. xii. 0 wie fröhlich, o wie selig. Eternal Life. Translated as:— Oh how joyous, oh how blessed. Another tr. is: "Oh, how blest beyond our telling." xiii. Schmückt das Fest mit Maien. Whitsuntide. Translated as:— Come, deck our feast today. xiv. Thut mir auf die schöne Pforte. Sunday. Translated as:— 1. Open now thy gates of beauty. This is a good tr., omitting stanza iii., vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 15. 2. Open wide the gates of beauty. This is a translation of stanzas i., ii., iv., vi.-vii., by H. L. Hastings, dated 1885, as No. 1076, in his Songs of Pilgrimage, 1886. Another tr. is: "Throw the glorious gates wide open," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 146. xv. Weine nicht, Gott lebet noch. Cross and Consolation. Tr. as:— "Weep not,-—Jesus lives on high. Another tr. is: "Weep not, for God, our God, doth live," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 59. xvi. Willkommen, Held im Streite. Easter. The translation in common use is:— Welcome Thou victor in the strife. This is a good translation omitting st. ii.—iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 91. Hymns not in English common use:-- xvii. Ach wenn ich dich, mein Gott, nur habe. Love to God. Founded on Ps. lxxiii. 25, 26. Translated as "My God, if I possess but Thee," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xviii. An Gott will ich gedenken. Remembering God's Love and Care. In his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1707, p. 59; ed. 1709, p. 131), in 6 stanzas of 8 lines, and Burg's Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 112. Translated as "My God will I remember," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. xix. Der Sabbath ist vergangen. Sunday Evening. Tr. as "The Sabbath now is over," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 226. xx. Du angenehmer Tag. Sunday. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 1, in 8 stanzas of 6 lines. Tr. as “Thou ever welcome day," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xxi. Endlich, endlich, muss es doch. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Yes, at last, our God shall make," in the Christian Examiner, Boston, U.S., Sept., 1860, p. 251. xxii. Gedenke mein, mein Gott, gedenke mein. For the Dying. Translated as "Remember me, my God! remember me," by Miss Borthwick, in Hymns from the Land of Luther 1854, p. 9. xxiii. Geh, müder Leib, zu deiner Euh. Evening. Translated as "Go, wearied body, to thy rest," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 35, in 10 stanzas of 6 lines, and Burg’s Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 403. Translated as "King, to Jews and Gentiles given," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxiv. Gott der Juden,Gott der Heiden. Epiphany. Translated as “King, to Jews and Gentiles given,” by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxv. Gott lebt, wie kann ich traurig sein. Trust in God. Translated as "God lives! Can I despair," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 44. xxvi. Gott mit uns, Immanuel. New Year. Translated as "God with us! Immanuel, Open with the year before us," by Dr. R. P. Dunn, in Sacred Lyrics from the German, Philadelphia, U.S., 1859, p. 166. xxvii. Hier ist Immanuel! New Year. Translated as "Here is Immanuel!" by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 24. xxviii. Hilf, Heifer, hilf! ich muss verzagen. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Help, Saviour, help, I sink, I die,” in the Monthly Packet, vol. xviii., 1859, p. 664. xix. Ich habe Lust zu scheiden. For the Dying. Tr. as "Weary, waiting to depart," by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1855, p 130. xxx. Ich sterbe täglich, und mein Leben. For the Dying. Translated as "Both life and death are kept by Thee" (st. iv.), by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. xxxi. Mein Gott, du hast mich eingeladen. Sunday. Translated as "My God, Thou hast the invite given," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 150. xxxii. Mein Gott! du wohnst in einem Lichte. Holy Scripture. Translated as "In glory bright, O God, Thou dwellest," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxxiii. Mein Gott, ich klopf an deine Pforte. Supplication. Tr.Translated as "given as "Mein Gott, mein Erstes und mein Alles." Translated as "My God! the Source of all my blessing," in the British Herald, August, 1866, p. 312; repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxxv. Mein Gott, weil ich in meinem Leben. The ChristiaWho, Lord, has any good whatever," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 91. xxxiv. Mein Gott, mein Alles Uber Alles. Trust in God. Sometimes n Life. Translated as "Most High! with reverence to fear Thee," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 114.). xxxvi. Nun hab ich überwunden; Zu guter Nacht, o Welt. For the Dying. Translated as "Now soon I shall have conquer'd," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 87. xxxvii. Seht welch ein Mensch ist das. Passiontide. The translations are (1) "See, what a man is this! How tearful is His glance," by J. Kelly, in the British Messenger, Feb., 1S68; repeated in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 691. (2) "See what a man is this, O glances," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 32. xxxviii. Sei getreu bis in den Tod. Christian Faithfulness. Translated as "Be thou faithful unto death! Let not troubles nor distresses," by R. Massie, in the Day of Rest, 1878, vol. ix. p. 219. xxxix. Theures Wort aus Gottes Munde. Holy Scripture. Translated as "Word by God the Father spoken," by Miss Manington, 1863. xl. Was Gott thut das ist wohlgethan! Er giebt und nimmt auch wieder. On the Death of a Child. The trs. are (1) "What God does is well done, "Who takes what He gave," by W. Graham, in his The Jordan and the Rhine, London, 1854, p. 251. (2) "Whatever God doth is well done, He gives, &c," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xli. Wer will mich von der Liebe scheiden. Faith. Translated as "Who can my soul from Jesus sever," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 39. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

H. W. Baker

1821 - 1877 Person Name: Henry W. Baker Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Translator (from German) of "What Our Father Does Is Well" in The Cyber Hymnal Baker, Sir Henry Williams, Bart., eldest son of Admiral Sir Henry Loraine Baker, born in London, May 27, 1821, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated, B.A. 1844, M.A. 1847. Taking Holy Orders in 1844, he became, in 1851, Vicar of Monkland, Herefordshire. This benefice he held to his death, on Monday, Feb. 12, 1877. He succeeded to the Baronetcy in 1851. Sir Henry's name is intimately associated with hymnody. One of his earliest compositions was the very beautiful hymn, "Oh! what if we are Christ's," which he contributed to Murray's Hymnal for the Use of the English Church, 1852. His hymns, including metrical litanies and translations, number in the revised edition of Hymns Ancient & Modern, 33 in all. These were contributed at various times to Murray's Hymnal, Hymns Ancient & Modern and the London Mission Hymn Book, 1876-7. The last contains his three latest hymns. These are not included in Hymns Ancient & Modern. Of his hymns four only are in the highest strains of jubilation, another four are bright and cheerful, and the remainder are very tender, but exceedingly plaintive, sometimes even to sadness. Even those which at first seem bright and cheerful have an undertone of plaintiveness, and leave a dreamy sadness upon the spirit of the singer. Poetical figures, far-fetched illustrations, and difficult compound words, he entirely eschewed. In his simplicity of language, smoothness of rhythm, and earnestness of utterance, he reminds one forcibly of the saintly Lyte. In common with Lyte also, if a subject presented itself to his mind with striking contrasts of lights and shadows, he almost invariably sought shelter in the shadows. The last audible words which lingered on his dying lips were the third stanza of his exquisite rendering of the 23rd Psalm, "The King of Love, my Shepherd is:"— Perverse and foolish, oft I strayed, But yet in love He sought me, And on His Shoulder gently laid, And home, rejoicing, brought me." This tender sadness, brightened by a soft calm peace, was an epitome of his poetical life. Sir Henry's labours as the Editor of Hymns Ancient & Modern were very arduous. The trial copy was distributed amongst a few friends in 1859; first ed. published 1861, and the Appendix, in 1868; the trial copy of the revised ed. was issued in 1874, and the publication followed in 1875. In addition he edited Hymns for the London Mission, 1874, and Hymns for Mission Services, n.d., c. 1876-7. He also published Daily Prayers for those who work hard; a Daily Text Book, &c. In Hymns Ancient & Modern there are also four tunes (33, 211, 254, 472) the melodies of which are by Sir Henry, and the harmonies by Dr. Monk. He died Feb. 12, 1877. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "To Avert from Us God's Wrath" in Moravian Book of Worship Luther, Martin, born at Eisleben, Nov. 10, 1483; entered the University of Erfurt, 1501 (B.A. 1502, M.A.. 1503); became an Augustinian monk, 1505; ordained priest, 1507; appointed Professor at the University of Wittenberg, 1508, and in 1512 D.D.; published his 95 Theses, 1517; and burnt the Papal Bull which had condemned them, 1520; attended the Diet of Worms, 1521; translated the Bible into German, 1521-34; and died at Eisleben, Feb. 18, 1546. The details of his life and of his work as a reformer are accessible to English readers in a great variety of forms. Luther had a huge influence on German hymnody. i. Hymn Books. 1. Ellich cristlich lider Lobgesang un Psalm. Wittenberg, 1524. [Hamburg Library.] This contains 8 German hymns, of which 4 are by Luther. 2. Eyn Enchiridion oder Handbuchlein. Erfurt, 1524 [Goslar Library], with 25 German hymns, of which 18 are by Luther. 3. Geystliche Gesangk Buchleyn. Wittenberg, 1524 [Munich Library], with 32 German hymns, of which 24 are by Luther. 4. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1529. No copy of this book is now known, but there was one in 1788 in the possession of G. E. Waldau, pastor at Nürnberg, and from his description it is evident that the first part of the Rostock Gesang-Buch, 1531, is a reprint of it. The Rostock Gesang-Buch, 1531, was reprinted by C. M. Wiechmann-Kadow at Schwerin in 1858. The 1529 evidently contained 50 German hymns, of which 29 (including the Litany) were by Luther. 5. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Erfurt. A. Rauscher, 1531 [Helmstädt, now Wolfenbüttel Library], a reprint of No. 4. 6. Geistliche Lieder. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1535 [Munich Library. Titlepage lost], with 52 German hymns, of which 29 are by Luther. 7. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Leipzig. V. Schumann, 1539 [Wernigerode Library], with 68 German hymns, of which 29 are by Luther. 8. Geistliche Lieder. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1543 [Hamburg Library], with 61 German hymns, of which 35 are by Luther. 9. Geystliche Lieder. Leipzig. V. Babst, 1545 [Gottingen Library]. This contains Luther's finally revised text, but adds no new hymns by himself. In pt. i. are 61 German hymns, in pt. ii. 40, of which 35 in all are by Luther. For these books Luther wrote three prefaces, first published respectively in Nos. 3, 4, 9. A fourth is found in his Christliche Geseng, Lateinisch und Deudsch, zum Begrebnis, Wittenberg, J. Klug, 1542. These four prefaces are reprinted in Wackernagel’s Bibliographie, 1855, pp. 543-583, and in the various editions of Luther's Hymns. Among modern editions of Luther's Geistliche Lieder may be mentioned the following:— Carl von Winterfeld, 1840; Dr. C. E. P. Wackernagel, 1848; Q. C. H. Stip, 1854; Wilhelm Schircks, 1854; Dr. Danneil, 1883; Dr. Karl Gerok, 1883; Dr. A. F. W. Fischer, 1883; A. Frommel, 1883; Karl Goedeke, 1883, &c. In The Hymns of Martin Luther. Set to their original melodies. With an English version. New York, 1883, ed. by Dr. Leonard Woolsey Bacon and Nathan H. Allen, there are the four prefaces, and English versions of all Luther's hymns, principally taken more or less altered, from the versions by A. T. Russell, R. Massie and Miss Winkworth [repub. in London, 1884]. Complete translations of Luther's hymns have been published by Dr. John Anderson, 1846 (2nd ed. 1847), Dr. John Hunt, 1853, Richard Massie, 1854, and Dr. G. Macdonald in the Sunday Magazine, 1867, and his Exotics, 1876. The other versions are given in detail in the notes on the individual hymns. ii. Classified List of Luther's Hymns. Of Luther's hymns no classification can be quite perfect, e.g. No. 3 (see below) takes hardly anything from the Latin, and No. 18 hardly anything from the Psalm. No. 29 is partly based on earlier hymns (see p. 225, i.). No. 30 is partly based on St. Mark i. 9-11, and xvi., 15, 16 (see p. 226, ii.). No. 35 is partly based on St. Luke ii. 10-16. The following arrangement, however, will answer all practical purposes. A. Translations from the Latin. i. From Latin Hymns: 1. Christum wir sollen loben schon. A solis ortus cardine 2. Der du bist drei in Einigkeit. O Lux beata Trinitas. 3. Jesus Christus unser Heiland, Der von. Jesus Christus nostra salus 4. Komm Gott Schopfer, heiliger Geist. Veni Creator Spiritus, Mentes. 5. Nun komm der Beidenheiland. Veni Redemptor gentium 6. Was flirchst du Feind Herodes sehr. A solis ortus cardine ii. From Latin Antiphons, &c.: 7. Herr Gott dich loben wir. Te Deum laudamus. 8. Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich. Dapacem, Domine 9. Wir glauben all an einen Gott. iii. Partly from the Latin, the translated stanzas being adopted from Pre-Reformation Versions: 10. Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. 11. Mitten wir im Leben sind. Media vita in morte sumus. B. Hymns revised and enlarged from Pre-Reformation popular hymns. 12. Gelobet seist du Jesus Christ. 13. Gott der Vater wohn uns bei. 14. Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet. 15. Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist. C. Psalm versions. 16. Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein. 17. Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir. 18. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. 19. Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl. 20. Es wollt uns Gott genädig sein. 21. War Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit. 22. Wohl dem, der in Gotten Furcht steht. D. Paraphrases of other portions of Holy Scripture. 23. Diess sind die heilgen zehn Gebot. 24. Jesaia dem Propheten das geschah. 25. Mensch willt du leben seliglich. 26. Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin. 27. Sie ist mir lieb die werthe Magd. 28. Vater unser im Himmelreich. E. Hymns mainly Original. 29. Christ lag in Todesbanden. 30. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. 31. Ein neues Lied wir heben an. 32. Erhalt uns Herr bei deinem Wort. 33. Jesus Christus unser Heiland, Der den, 34. Nun freut euch lieben Christengemein. 35. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. 36. Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar. In addition to these — 37. Fur alien Freuden auf Erden. 38. Kyrie eleison. In the Blätter fur Hymnologie, 1883, Dr. Daniel arranges Luther's hymns according to what he thinks their adaptation to modern German common use as follows:— i. Hymns which ought to be included in every good Evangelical hymn-book: Nos. 7-18, 20, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38. ii. Hymns the reception of which into a hymn-book might be contested: Nos. 2, 3, 4, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 33. iii. Hymns not suited for a hymn-book: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 27, 31, 37. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Charles F. Gounod

1818 - 1893 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "LUX PRIMA" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) Charles F. Gounod (b. Paris, France, 1818; d. St. Cloud, France, 1893) was taught initially by his pianist mother. Later he studied at the Paris Conservatory, won the "Grand Prix de Rome" in 1839, and continued his musical training in Vienna, Berlin, and Leipzig. Though probably most famous for his opera Faust (1859) and other instrumental music (including his Meditation sur le Prelude de Bach, to which someone added the Ave Maria text for soprano solo), Gounod also composed church music-four Masses, three Requiems, and a Magnificat. His smaller works for church use were published as Chants Sacres. When he lived in England (1870-1875), Gounod became familiar with British cathedral music and served as conductor of what later became the Royal Choral Society. Bert Polman

W. Chatterton Dix

1837 - 1898 Person Name: William C. Dix Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "As with Gladness Men of Old" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) Most British hymn writers in the nineteenth century were clergymen, but William C. Dix (b. Bristol, England, 1837; d. Cheddar, Somerset, England, 1898) was a notable exception. Trained in the business world, he became the manager of a marine insurance company in Glasgow, Scotland. Dix published various volumes of his hymns, such as Hymns of Love and Joy (1861) and Altar Songs: Verses on the Holy Eucharist (1867). A number of his texts were first published in Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861). Bert Polman ======================== Dix, William Chatterton, son of John Dix, surgeon, of Bristol, author of the Life of Chatterton; Local Legends, &c, born at Bristol, June 14, 1837, and educated at the Grammar School of that city. Mr. Chatterton Dix's contributions to modern hymnody are numerous and of value. His fine Epiphany hymn, "As with gladness men of old,” and his plaintive ”Come unto Me, ye weary," are examples of his compositions, many of which rank high amongst modern hymns. In his Hymns of Love and Joy, 1861, Altar Songs, Verses on the Holy Eucharist, 1867; Vision of All Saints, &c, 1871; and Seekers of a City, 1878, some of his compositions were first published. The greater part, however, were contributed to Hymns Ancient & Modern; St. Raphaels Hymnbook, 1861; Lyra Eucharidica, 1863; Lyra Messianica, 1864; Lyra Mystica, 1865; The People's Hymns, 1867; The Hymnary, 1872; Church Hymns, 1871, and others. Many of his contributions are renderings in metrical form of Dr. Littledale's translation from the Greek in his Offices . . . of the Holy Eastern Church, 1863; and of the Rev. J. M. Rodwell's translation of hymns of the Abyssinian Church. These renderings of the "songs of other Churches" have not received the attention they deserve, and the sources from whence they come are practically unknown to most hymnal compilers. Mr. Dix has also written many Christmas and Easter carols, the most widely known of which is "The Manger Throne."   In addition to detached pieces in prose and verse for various magazines, he has published two devotional works, Light; and The Risen Life, 1883; and a book of instructions for children entitled The Pattern Life, 1885. The last-named contains original hymns by Mr. Dix not given elsewhere. In addition to the more important of Mr. Dix's hymns which are annotated under their respective first lines, the following are also in common use:- 1. God cometh, let the heart prepare.  Advent. In his Vision of All Saints, &c, 1871.      2. Holy, holy, holy, to Thee our vows we pay.  Holy Communion.   Published in his Altar Songs, 1867, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, and headed "Eucharistic Processional for Dedication Feast."    In the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Church Hymns, 1871, and others in an abridged form.      3. How long, O Lord, how long, we ask.   Second Advent.   Appeared in the Appendix to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Psalms & Hymns, 1869, and repeated in several collections.        4. In our work and in our play.    Children's Hymn. Published in his Hymns and Carols for Children, 1869, and is largely adopted  in  children's  hymnbooks, as  Mrs. Brock's Children's Hymnbook, 1881, and others.   Also in the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Church Hymns, 1871.      5.  In the hollow of Thine hand.   For Fair Weather. Appeared in the People's Hymns, 1867, and repeated in several others.      6.  Joy fills our inmost heart today.    Christmas. Printed in the Church Times, and  then on a Flysheet by Gr. J. Palmer, as the third of Four Joyful Hymns for Christmas, circa 1865. It is in the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Church Hymns, 1871, and other hymnals. It is also one of Mr. Dix's Christmas Customs & Christmas Carols, not dated.      7. Lift up your songs, ye thankful.   St. Ambrose. Contributed to the People's Hymns, 1867.  8. Now in numbers softly flowing.    St. Cecilia. Contributed to the People's Hymns, 1867.    9.  Now, our Father, we adore Thee.   Praise to the Father.   Appeared in the Appendix to the S. P. C. K. Psalms & Hymns, 1869.   10.  O Christ, Thou Son of Mary.   St. Crispin.   First printed in the Union Review, Sept., 1866, and thence into the People's Hymns, 1887.   11. O Cross which only canst allay.   Glorying and Trusting in the Cross.   Published in the People's Hymns, 1867.   12. O Thou the Eternal Son of God.   Good Friday. Appeared in Lyra Messianica, 1864; the author's Hymns and Carols for Children, 1869; the S. P. C. K. Church Hymns, 1871, &c.   13. On the waters dark and drear.   For use at Sea. Published in Hymns for Public Worship, &c. (St. Raphael's, Bristol), 1861; the S. P. C. K. Church Hymns, 1871, &c.   14. Only one prayer to-day.   Ash Wednesday.   Contributed to the People's Hymns, 1867.   15. Sitting at receipt of custom.  St. Matthew.  Appeared in the People's Hymns, 1867.   16. The Cross is on thy brow.   Confirmation.   In the 1869 Appendix to the S. P. C. K. Psalms & Hymns.   17.  The stars above our head.   Work and Humility. In the 1869 Appendix to the S. P. C. K. Psalms & Hymns.  18. When the shades of night are falling.   Evening Hymn to the Good Shepherd.   In the author's Seekers of a City, &c. [1878]. Most of Mr. Dix's best-known hymns, and also some of those named above, are in common use in America and other English-speaking countries. In Great Britain and America from 30 to 40 are in common use.  He died Sept. 9, 1898. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ====================== Dix, William Chatterton, p. 302, ii. Additional hymns by Mr. Dix now in common use are:— 1. Lift up your songs, ye angel choirs. Ascension. 2. Now, my soul rehearse the story. Christ Feeding the Multitude. 3. Within the temple's hallowed courts. Blessed Virgin Mary. These hymns are from his Altar Songs, 1867. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

James Montgomery

1771 - 1854 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Go to Dark Gethsemane" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) James Montgomery (b. Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland, 1771; d. Sheffield, Yorkshire, England, 1854), the son of Moravian parents who died on a West Indies mission field while he was in boarding school, Montgomery inherited a strong religious bent, a passion for missions, and an independent mind. He was editor of the Sheffield Iris (1796-1827), a newspaper that sometimes espoused radical causes. Montgomery was imprisoned briefly when he printed a song that celebrated the fall of the Bastille and again when he described a riot in Sheffield that reflected unfavorably on a military commander. He also protested against slavery, the lot of boy chimney sweeps, and lotteries. Associated with Christians of various persuasions, Montgomery supported missions and the British Bible Society. He published eleven volumes of poetry, mainly his own, and at least four hundred hymns. Some critics judge his hymn texts to be equal in quality to those of Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley . Many were published in Thomas Cotterill's Selection of Psalms and Hymns (1819 edition) and in Montgomery's own Songs of Zion (1822), Christian Psalmist (1825), and Original Hymns (1853). Bert Polman ======================== Montgomery, James, son of John Montgomery, a Moravian minister, was born at Irvine, Ayrshire, Nov. 4, 1771. In 1776 he removed with his parents to the Moravian Settlement at Gracehill, near Ballymena, county of Antrim. Two years after he was sent to the Fulneck Seminary, Yorkshire. He left Fulneck in 1787, and entered a retail shop at Mirfield, near Wakefield. Soon tiring of that he entered upon a similar situation at Wath, near Rotherham, only to find it quite as unsuitable to his taste as the former. A journey to London, with the hope of finding a publisher for his youthful poems ended in failure; and in 1792 he was glad to leave Wath for Shefield to join Mr. Gales, an auctioneer, bookseller, and printer of the Sheffield Register newspaper, as his assistant. In 1794 Mr. Gales left England to avoid a political prosecution. Montgomery took the Sheffield Register in hand, changed its name to The Sheffield Iris, and continued to edit it for thirty-one years. During the next two years he was imprisoned twice, first for reprinting therein a song in commemoration of "The Fall of the Bastille," and the second for giving an account of a riot in Sheffield. The editing of his paper, the composition and publication of his poems and hynms, the delivery of lectures on poetry in Sheffield and at the Royal Institution, London, and the earnest advocacy of Foreign Missions and the Bible Society in many parts of the country, gave great variety but very little of stirring incident to his life. In 1833 he received a Royal pension of £200 a year. He died in his sleep, at the Mount, Sheffield, April 30, 1854, and was honoured with a public funeral. A statue was erected to his memory in the Sheffield General Cemetery, and a stained glass window in the Parish Church. A Wesleyan chapel and a public hall are also named in his honour. Montgomery's principal poetical works, including those which he edited, were:— (1) Prison Amusements, 1797; (2) The Wanderer of Switzerland, 1806; (3) The West Indies, 1807; (4) The World before the Flood, 1813; (5) Greenland and Other Poems, 1819; (6) Songs of Zion, 1822; (7) The Christian Psalmist, 1825; (8) The Christian Poet, 1825; (9) The Pelican Island, 1828; (10) The Poet’s Portfolio, 1835; (11) Original Hymns for Public, Private, and Social Devotion, 1853. He also published minor pieces at various times, and four editions of his Poetical Works, the first in 1828, the second in 1836, the third in 1841, and the fourth in 1854. Most of these works contained original hymns. He also contributed largely to Collyer's Collection, 1812, and other hymnbooks published during the next 40 years, amongst which the most noticeable was Cotterill's Selections of 1819, in which more than 50 of his compositions appeared. In his Christian Psalmist, 1825, there are 100 of his hymns, and in his Original Hymns, 1853, 355 and 5 doxologies. His Songs of Zion, 1822, number 56. Deducting those which are repeated in the Original Hymns, there remain about 400 original compositions. Of Montgomery's 400 hymns (including his versions of the Psalms) more than 100 are still in common use. With the aid of Montgomery's MSS. we have given a detailed account of a large number. The rest are as follows:— i. Appeared in Collyer's Collection, 1812. 1. Jesus, our best beloved Friend. Personal Dedication to Christ. 2. When on Sinai's top I see. Sinai, Tabor, and Calvary. ii. Appeared in Cotterill's Selection, 1819. 3. Come to Calvary's holy mountain. The Open Fountain. 4. God in the high and holy place. God in Nature. The cento in Com. Praise, 1879, and others, "If God hath made this world so fair," is from this hymn. 5. Hear me, O Lord, in my distress. Ps. cxliii. 6. Heaven is a place of rest from sin. Preparation for Heaven. 7. I cried unto the Lord most just. Ps. cxlii. 8. Lord, let my prayer like incense rise. Ps. cxxxix. 9. O bless the Lord, my soul! His grace to thee proclaim. Ps. ciii. 10. Out of the depths of woe. Ps. cxxx. Sometimes "When from the depths of woe." 11. The world in condemnation lay. Redemption. 12. Where are the dead? In heaven or hell? The Living and the Dead. iii. Appeared in his Songs of Zion, 1822. 13. Give glory to God in the highest. Ps. xxix. 14. Glad was my heart to hear. Ps. cxxii. 15. God be merciful to me. Ps. lxix. 16. God is my strong salvation. Ps. xxvii. 17. Hasten, Lord, to my release. Ps. lxx. 18. Have mercy on me, O my God. Ps. li. 19. Hearken, Lord, to my complaints. Ps. xlii. 20. Heralds of creation cry. Ps. cxlviii. 21. How beautiful the sight. Ps. cxxxiii. 22. How precious are Thy thoughts of peace. Ps. cxxxix. 23. I love the Lord, He lent an ear. Ps. cxvi. 24. In time of tribulation. Ps. lxxvii. 25. Jehovah is great, and great be His praise. Ps. xlviii. Sometimes, "0 great is Jehovah, and great is His Name." 26. Judge me, O Lord, in righteousness. Ps. xliii. 27. Lift up your heads, ye gates, and wide. Ps.xxiv. 28. Lord, let me know mine [my] end. Ps. xxxi. 29. Of old, 0 God, Thine own right hand. Ps. lxxx. 30. O God, Thou art [my] the God alone. Ps. lxiii. 31. 0 Lord, our King, how excellent. Ps. viii. Sometimes, "0 Lord, how excellent is Thy name." 32. O my soul, with all thy powers. Ps. ciii. 33. One thing with all my soul's desire. Ps. xxvii. From this, "Grant me within Thy courts a place." 34. Searcher of hearts, to Thee are known. Ps. cxxxix. 35. Thank and praise Jehovah's name. Ps. cvii. 36. Thee will I praise, O Lord in light. Ps. cxxxviii. 37. The Lord is King; upon His throne. Ps. xciii. 38. The Lord is my Shepherd, no want shall I know. Ps. xxiii. 39. The tempter to my soul hath said. Ps. iii. 40. Thrice happy he who shuns the way. Ps. i. 41. Thy glory, Lord, the heavens declare. Ps. xix. 42. Thy law is perfect, Lord of light. Ps. xix. 43. Who make the Lord of hosts their tower. Ps. cxxv. 44. Yea, I will extol Thee. Ps. xxx. iv. Appeared in his Christian Psalmist. 1825. 45. Fall down, ye nations, and adore. Universal adoration of God desired. 46. Food, raiment, dwelling, health, and friends. The Family Altar. 47. Go where a foot hath never trod. Moses in the desert. Previously in the Leeds Congregational Collection, 1822. 48. Green pastures and clear streams. The Good Shepherd and His Flock. 49. Less than the least of all. Mercies acknowledged. 50. Not to the mount that burned with fire [flame]. Communion of Saints. 51. On the first Christian Sabbath eve. Easter Sunday Evening. 52. One prayer I have: all prayers in one. Resignation. 53. Our heavenly Father hear. The Lord's Prayer. 54. Return, my soul, unto thy rest. Rest in God. 55. Spirit of power and might, behold. The Spirit's renewing desired. 56. The Christian warrior, see him stand. The Christian Soldier. Sometimes, "Behold the Christian warrior stand." 57. The days and years of time are fled. Day of Judgment. 58. The glorious universe around. Unity. 59. The pure and peaceful mind. A Children's Prayer. 60. This is the day the Lord hath made (q. v.). Sunday. 61. Thy word, Almighty Lord. Close of Service. 62. What secret hand at morning light ? Morning. 63. While through this changing world we roam. Heaven. 64. Within these walls be peace. For Sunday Schools. v. Appeared in his Original Hymns, 1853. 65. Behold yon bright array. Opening a Place of Worship. 66. Behold the book whose leaves display. Holy Scriptures. 67. Come ye that fear the Lord. Confirmation. 68. Home, kindred, friends, and country, these. Farewell to a Missionary. 69. Let me go, the day is breaking. Jacob wrestling. 70. Not in Jerusalem alone. Consecration of a Church. 71. Praise the high and holy One. God the Creator. In common with most poets and hymnwriters, Montgomery strongly objected to any correction or rearrangement of his compositions. At the same time he did not hesitate to alter, rearrange, and amend the productions of others. The altered texts which appeared in Cotterill's Selections, 1819, and which in numerous instances are still retained in some of the best hymnbooks, as the "Rock of Ages," in its well-known form of three stanzas, and others of equal importance, were made principally by him for Cotterill's use. We have this confession under his own hand. As a poet, Montgomery stands well to the front; and as a writer of hymns he ranks in popularity with Wesley, Watts, Doddridge, Newton, and Cowper. His best hymns were written in his earlier years. In his old age he wrote much that was unworthy of his reputation. His finest lyrics are "Angels from the realms of glory," "Go to dark Gethsemane," "Hail to the Lord's Anointed," and "Songs of praise the angels sang." His "Prayer is the soul's sincere desire," is an expanded definition of prayer of great beauty; and his "Forever with the Lord" is full of lyric fire and deep feeling. The secrets of his power as a writer of hymns were manifold. His poetic genius was of a high order, higher than most who stand with him in the front rank of Christian poets. His ear for rhythm was exceedingly accurate and refined. His knowledge of Holy Scripture was most extensive. His religious views were broad and charitable. His devotional spirit was of the holiest type. With the faith of a strong man he united the beauty and simplicity of a child. Richly poetic without exuberance, dogmatic without uncharitableness, tender without sentimentality, elaborate without diffusiveness, richly musical without apparent effort, he has bequeathed to the Church of Christ wealth which could onlv have come from a true genius and a sanctified! heart. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Folliott Sandford Pierpoint

1835 - 1917 Person Name: Folliott S. Pierpont, 1835-1917 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "For the Beauty of the Earth" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) In the spring of 1863, Folliott S. Pierpoint (b. Bath, Somerset, England, 1835; d. Newport, Monmouthshire, England, 1917) sat on a hilltop outside his native city of Bath, England, admiring the country view and the winding Avon River. Inspired by the view to think about God's gifts in creation and in the church, Pierpont wrote this text. Pierpont was educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, England, and periodically taught classics at Somersetshire College. But because he had received an inheritance, he did not need a regular teaching position and could afford the leisure of personal study and writing. His three volumes of poetry were collected in 1878; he contributed hymns to The Hymnal Noted (1852) and Lyra Eucharistica (1864). "For the Beauty of the Earth" is the only Pierpont hymn still sung today. Bert Polman ================== Pierpoint, Folliott Sandford, M.A., son of William Home Pierpoint of Bath, was born at Spa Villa, Bath, Oct. 7, 1835, and educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, graduating in classical honours in 1871. He has published The Chalice of Nature and Other Poems, Bath, N.D. This was republished in 1878 as Songs of Love, The Chalice of Nature, and Lyra Jesu. He also contributed hymns to the Churchman's Companion (London Masters), the Lyra Eucharistica, &c. His hymn on the Cross, "0 Cross, O Cross of shame," appeared in both these works. He is most widely known through:— "For the beauty of the earth." Holy Communion, or Flower Service. This was contributed to the 2nd edition of Orby Shipley's Lyra Eucharistica, 1864, in 8 stanzas of 6 lines, as a hymn to be sung at the celebration of Holy Communion. In this form it is not usually found, but in 4, or sometimes in 5, stanzas, it is extensively used for Flower Services and as a Children's hymn. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Christ, Whose Glory Fills the Skies" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, [sic. 1738] he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

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